Monday, September 30, 2019

Sample of Document

Entity:| Vietcombank| | Period ended:| 31/12/2012| Significant class of transactions/significant disclosure process name:| Credit origination – Transaction processing| | Significant class of transactions/ significant disclosure process owner:| Credit Policty at HODebt management division Client Division | |We obtain an understanding of the significant classes of transactions (SCOTs) and significant disclosure processes to identify and understand the risks of material misstatement at the assertion level (i. e. , what can go wrongs (WCGWs)) and, when applicable, to identify and understand the controls over the WCGWs. This template assists with completing S03 Understand significant classes of transactions and significant disclosure processes. Significant accounts affected and key business and financial statement risks related to these accounts: * Loan Acc * Interest Acc * Provision Acc * Expense Acc * Receivable Acc| Relevant assertions: * Valuation * Completeness * Right and Obl igation * Presentation and Disclosure * Existence | Nature of the SCOT (routine, non-routine, estimation): * Routine| Starting point (initiation) and timing of initiation and recording of the SCOT or significant disclosure process: * Customer’s application| Specific circumstances affecting the form and extent of the documentation: * None| Name of the IT application that supports the SCOT * | Inputs/outputs of the critical path of significant class of transactions/significant disclosure process| Inputs/outputs of the supporting IT application| Inputs: * | Inputs: * | Outputs: * | Outputs: * |Critical path (initiating, recording, processing, reporting, correcting incorrect information) We obtain an understanding of the SCOTs and the significant disclosure processes by obtaining an understanding of their critical path. The critical path includes: * Initiation: the point where the transaction first enters the entity’s process and is prepared and submitted for recording * R ecording: the point where the transaction is first recorded in the books and records of the entity * Processing: any changes, manipulation or transfers of the data in the books and records of the entity * Reporting: the point where the transaction is reported (i. e. posted) in the general ledger. When we obtain an understanding of the critical path, we obtain an understanding of how incorrectly processed information is detected and corrected on a timely basis. We also obtain an understanding of how transactions are accumulated and posted from the sub ledger to the general ledger, including controls over associated journal entries. We obtain an understanding of the policies and procedures in place that management uses to determine that directives are carried out and applied, including: * Authorization * Segregation of incompatible duties * Safeguarding of assets * Information processing * Performance reviewsWe use our understanding of the critical path and the policies and procedures to identify WCGWs and, when applicable, relevant controls. In the course of acquiring an understanding of the processing procedures, we frequently learn of many of the controls in use. Thus, while the emphasis at this point is not to identify the presence or absence of controls, we are alert to the possible absence of controls, and to the points at which errors could occur and controls are needed. We consider the effect IT has on the SCOTs and the significant disclosure processes. The manner in which we document our understanding of the SCOT or significant disclosure process is left to professional judgment of the engagement executives.However, for critical paths related to routine transactions, a graphical depiction of the flow (e. g. , flowchart), supported with narrative notes (e. g. , use of this template) normally provides for easier identification of the types of errors that can occur. No. | Describe the critical path for the significant class of transactions/significant disc losure process| Describe the automated aspects of the significant class of transactions/significant disclosure process, including: * Manual aspects that depend upon computer functionality or computer generated data * IT applications/infrastructure| 1 | Credit appraisal and granting proposal 1. 1. Loan application:For both HO and Branches, Credit Dept. s organised into 3 divisions:- Client and Project Investment (optional): responsible for receiving and appraising loan request, monitoring and finalizing/ liquidating the loan. – Debt Management: mainly responsible for storing credit contract and other supporting documents as well as updating required information into system; work with Client Division in monitoring the loan. And two Risk Management division : involved in credit approving process in terms of risk assessment. One is under HO and one is based on Ho Chi Minh CityFirstly, Client/ Project Investment officer receives client’s Loan Application and supporting docu ments – which are clearly stated in Article 14 – Decision 228/NHNT. HTQT: Lending Regulations1. 2.Loan appraisal: * Secondly, Based on documents obtained and the present credit regulations, Client/ Project Investment officer appraises client’s application under the following aspects: * Suitability (in relation to approved Credit limit, related regulations and current risk management policies of the bank) * Feasibility, efficiency and level of risk (if exist) related to client’s business plan * Solvency * Collaterals: Client officer who receives and appraises loan request also responsible for monitoring and appraising collateral. Deliverable of the officer at this stage is Collateral Appraisal Report (Form BD 1. 1. v002), including signature of client officer-in-charge and Head of Client Division.Regarding valuation, branches except for compulsory circumstances, are encouraged to cooperate with Independent Appraisal Firms (selected within the list of allow able firms, attached with Document 946/VCB. CSTD – Appendix 01). In case collateral is valued by VCB, Valuation Memo (Form 2. 2: Bien Ban Dinh Gia) must be prepared with signature of client and bank representative, under Decision 30/ VCB. CSTD. For collateral of over 20 billion VND, branch must send to HO the appraisal documents by Appraisal firm and Appraisal/ Periodic Revelation Report (Form BD 1. 2. v002), within 2 days since the reports are given their approving authority. | Manual | | * Next, Client/ Project Investment officer prepares and signs Report of Credit appraisal and granting proposal (Bao cao th? m d? h va D? xu? t c? p TD), following Form 1. 4A, 1. 4B and 1. 5. * The Report is then submitted to Head of Client/ Project Investment Division (TP KH) for revising and signing in case the deliverables of Client/ Project Investment officer are accepted. Otherwise, he/she needs to document reasons as well as additional opinions * Credit/ Project Investment officer then prepares submission documents. a) For clients granted Credit limit, Client officer submits to Branch’s Director/ Vice Director or Client Director (GD KH) for HO clients. b) For clients granted Credit limit but required by Credit limit approving authority (C? p th? m quy? n phe duy? ) to seek for higher authority’s approval when granting the loan, Client officer submits to both Branch’s Director/ Vice Director and the authority which is stated in Announcement of Credit limit Approval (Thong bao phe duy? t GHTD). If the higher authority is Local Credit Committee (HDTD co s? ), there is no need to submit to Branch’s Director/ Vice Director. c) For clients not yet granted or beyond Credit limit, Project Investment loan is issued. – Branch-based client: Client/ Project Investment officer submits to Local Credit Committee’s Director to organise meeting based on its Regulation on Operations. – HO-based client: Client/ Project Investment off icer submits to authorised Client Director. For the credit limits beyond authority of Client Director, submission is sent directly to HO’s Credit Risk Management Division for subsequent steps. Submission documents include: * Client’s Loan Request (original) * Report on Credit/ Project investment appraisal and granting proposal (original) * Credit Scoring and Rating Table (original) * Legal documents for new customers * Financial statements * Other relevant documents (if available)| | 2. | Loan approvalBased on Report of Credit appraisal and granting proposal, signed by Client officer and Head of Client Division together with supporting documents, the following parties in accordance with their specific authority will start the approving process:2. 1. Branch’s Director/ Vice Director * In case credit granted within Credit limit, Branch’s Director/ Vice Director approves the credit grant based on Report of Credit appraisal and granting proposal signed by Cli ent/ Project Investment officer and Branch’s Director/ Vice Director, as well as accompanying submission documents. In case credit is granted within Credit limit but required by Credit limit approving authority to seek for higher authority’s approval when granting the loan, Client officer submits to both Branch’s Director/ Vice Director and the required authority (If the higher authority is Local Credit Committee (HDTD co s? ), there is no need to submit to Branch’s Director/ Vice Director). 2. 2. Local Credit Committee * Following its Regulations on Organisation and Operations, Local Credit Committee’s Director organises meeting based on submission documents prepared by Client/ Project investment officer. This Committee includes Branch’s director, Vice director and head of Client, Investment project and Debt management division. Local Credit Committee approves credit grants which fall within its authority. Otherwise, based on acceptance opi nion of Local Credit Committee, submission documents are then sent to Risk Management Division by client officer for subsequent steps. * For branches under the processing range of HCM-based Risk Management Division, Client officer submits set of Loan Proposal documents directly to HO’s Risk Management Division and 1 copy of Loan Proposal Form (Form 3. 2) to HCM-based Division in case of beyond its authority. * Branch’s set of documents include: * The original Request for Loan approval Form 3. 2 (T? trinh d? ngh? phe duy? t tin d? ng/DTDA) signed by Local Credit Committee’s Director. A copy of Local Credit Committee’s Meeting minutes * Submission documents to Local Credit Committee| Manual| | 2. 3. Risk Management Division * Based on set of Loan Proposal documents from the Branch, Risk officer evaluates credit risks and prepare Credit Risk Assessment Report (Bao cao ra soat r? i ro c? p tin d? ng) using Form 2. 3A/2. 3B/2. 4 * The report is then signed by Risk officer before being submitted to at least 2 controllers of Risk Management Division, who later provides their approval plus signature. * Afterwards, Risk officer prepares and signs off every page of Announcement of Credit/ Project Investment Approval( Thong bao phe duy? t c? p tin d? ng/DTDA) Form 4. , before: * submitting to Head of Risk Management Division and Risk Management Director for signature; * sending an original to the proposing Branch; a copy to General Director as well as relevant Branches. 2. 5. HO-based clients/ projects within Client Director’s approving authorityCredit proposals under this case are only considered ‘approved’ when the Report of Credit appraisal and granting proposal is signed and given acceptance opinion by Client Director. Accordingly, Client/ Project investment officer prepares (Thong bao tac nghi? p) and transfers documents to HO Debt Management Division for storage, system entering and other subsequent steps. 2. 6.Risk M anagement Director and Client DirectorUnder this circumstance, Risk officer duplicates the steps within the approving authority of Risk Management Director as stated above. The proposal is only considered ‘approved’ when obtaining signature of both, except for either of them is absent. | | | 2. 7. Central Credit Committee * Central Credit Committee bases on Credit Risk Assessment Report (signed by at least 2 controllers of Risk Management Division) and Branch’s document set (original) prepared by Risk officer to call a meeting. * According to Meeting minutes, Risk Management Division prepares and signs off every page of Announcement of Credit/ Project Investment Approval (Form 4. 2) before submitting Director Central Credit Committee for signature. Then submit to: * Client Division at HO an original for subsequent steps * relevant Branches 01 copy * HCM-based Division a copy in case of approving the proposal of branches under its authority. 2. 8. Board of Directo rs * Under this circumstance, after being approved by Central Credit Committee, Risk Management Division prepares submission documents in accordance with Regulation of Loan grants under approving authority of BOD. * Risk Management Division then prepares Approval Announcement and sends documents in such a way as cases under Central Credit Committee’s authority; in which, documents to Debt Management Division must include Loan Approval Form by BOD. | | 3. | Making loan contract and collateral contractBased on approving results, Client officer continues to seek signature for loan and collateral contract. 3. 1.Loan contract/Collateral contract * Client/ Project Investment Division signs off (ky t? t) every page of loan contract/collateral contract and send to client for confirmation. After signing off by Client and Bank ‘s representer, Loan contract was sent to Accounting division and Debt management Division. collateral contract was sent to Storage division * If any disag reement arises, Client/ Project Investment officer must report to Head of Division. If necessary to amend content or approval conditions, Client/ Project Investment Division issues Form 1. 6: Report on Appraising and Proposing Credit Adjustment, submit to authorised bank representatives for approval. After obtaining client’s signature and original of collateral contracts, Client/ Project Investment Division register collateral transactions. * Client/ Project Investment officer prepares 02 (Thong bao tac nghi? p m? HDTD), sign off and submit to Head of Division for signature, before sending to Debt Management Division (relevant documents included) for storage and entering into system. * In case clients do not have CIF yet, Client Division prepares Thong bao tac nghiep mo so CIF (Form 5. 8) then sends to Transaction Accounting dept. to open new CIF. | Manual| 4. | Putting data into system and managing credit file * After signing loan contract, Client officer prepare and sign on â€Å"Thong bao tac nghiep m? h? p d? ng tin d? g† containing all information needed to put into system, conditions to disburse, a list of documents needed to store and special conditions needed to manage the loan. After that, debt management officer recheck and sign on â€Å"Thong bao tac nghiep†. * Basing on â€Å"Thong bao tac nghiep†, Debt Management officer is responsible for putting data into system. However, only when it is approved online by head/vice of debt management Division, will client data be disclosed on system. Debt Management officer stores all the documents listed on â€Å"thong bao tac nghiep†| IT Dependent| 5. | Disbursement of loanThe disbursement of loan involves the following steps which depend on the appointed approving authority.However, all of the appointed divisions are held responsible for checking the conformity of client’s withdrawal documents with credit contract. 5. 1. Client/ Project Investment DivisionIf withdraw al request is valid, Client officer prepares â€Å"Thong bao tac nghiep du dieu kien rut von† (Form 5. 4), signs off and submits to Division Head for signature before transferring documents to Debt Management officer for disbursement. 5. 2. Debt Management DivisionThe division directly receives withdrawal request from client and perform checking procedures. Client is required to amend information if found unsuitable. Otherwise, Debt Management officer starts disbursing the loan. 5. 3.Client/ Project Investment Division receiving request, Debt Management Division performing checking proceduresWithdrawal documents after being received and checked by Client officer, Debt Management officer takes over for disbursement, based on Credit Approval Announcement and Credit contract. If documents are found invalid, they are sent back to Client Division for completion. 5. 4. Higher authorityClient officer prepares â€Å"Thong bao tac nghiep du dieu kien rut von† (signed by him/her and Head of division). Afterwards, based on credit approval results, Client officer submits the above document and other supporting ones to higher authority. If approved, the documents are transferred to Debt Management for disbursement.The details of disbursement process are briefed as follows: * Debt Management officer opens loan account, fills in CIF, signs off Loan Receipt Note before updating into system for online approval of Division’s Head. * Next, the officer sends: * 01 Loan Receipt Note to client * 01 Loan Receipt Note and supporting documents to relevant departments for disbursement * The last Loan Receipt Note stored in the division. | IT Dependent| 6. | Post-disbursement Monitoring of Loan * At least every 6 months, Client/ Project Investment Division must recheck the loan usage status (usage purpose, collateral status, the balance between assets resulting from the loan and the outstanding balance).This is implemented in accordance with the predetermined plan ( monitoring schedule and methodology), which is proposed by Client officer when preparing Report of Credit appraisal and granting proposal or when â€Å"Thong bao tac nghiep† at the latest. * For collateral monitoring, the following aspects must be assured: * Status compared to previous visit * Forecasted revaluations * Client’s conformity in preserving collateral * Proposal to modify collateral management methods (optional) * Proposal to add/ replace collateral (optional) * Debt Management Division is held responsible for reminding Client/ Project Investment Division about loan monitoring schedule. The result must be documented on Loan Monitoring Records (Bien b? n Ki? m tra), which is signed by Borrower’s representative and submitted to Head of Client/ Project Investment Division for revision and comment. * In case Client/ Project Investment Division detects any signals of risk, officer takes the initiative to propose the corresponding solution (included in Loa n Monitoring Records) before submitting to Head of Division, Director of Client Division (for HO-based clients) or Branch’s Director/ Deputy Director. * After finalizing the Record, officer sends 01 original to Debt Management, 01 copy to Risk Management Division for co-monitoring. | Manual | 7. Credit Adjustment * Depending on the real situation and client’s demand after credit approval, credit adjustment can be made correspondingly. * Procedures of Credit Adjustment are conducted in the same manner as that of Credit Proposal and Approval (only those who are authorised to approve credit are able to approve credit adjustment). Client / investment project officer prepares Report of credit appraisal and credit adjustment- bao cao th? m d? nh va d? xu? t di? u ch? nh tin d? ng. At risk management division prepares Credit risk assessment for adjustment report – Bao cao ra soat r? i ro di? u ch? nh c? p tin d? ng. * Client/ Project Investment Division prepare Thong b ao tac nghi? p di? ch? nh HDTD. | Manual| 8. | Loan and interest collection * At least 10 days before due date, Debt Management officer prints out the list of loans and transfer to Client/ Project Investment Division whose officer prepares a document to inform clients and in charge of pushing clients to pay principal and interest * System automatic calculate interest income for loan group 1 * At the due date of loan, Debt Management officer prints out the report of principle and interest up to due date and checking. Then this report is submitted to Head of Debt management for approving. This report is then transferred to Accounting Division for collecting. If collected in cash, Client has to pay at first at Cash Division. ; after collecting enough and checking, Cash Division. will sign on â€Å"Deposit slip† (Cash receipt) then transfers Cash Receipt Note to Accounting Division for booking entry. * Accountant makes the following entries: * With principal collection:Dr. : Cash / BankCr. : Loan to Customer * With interest collection:Dr. : Cash/ BankCr. : Interest Income * Accounting voucher printed out and signed by controller and chief accountant. | Application A*N*t Interest = ————- 360*100 A: Outstanding balance N:Days (From the last payment day to the next payment day). t:interest rate | 9. Overdue Debt Management * When the loan turns into overdue, debt management officer sends a Reminding Letter to the customer (at least once a month), approved by the Head/Vice of Debt Management Division. This letter is transferred to clients and a copy is also to deliver to the credit officer. * If the customers still don’t make payment after more than 3 times received the Reminding Letter, credit officer proposes to the Head of Client/ Project Investment Division to work directly with the customer’s representative to cover the debt. * Client/ Project Investment Division combines with Risk Management Division and Legal Divi sion if necessary to protect all the interests of VCB. | 10. | Contract liquidation and Collateral Release Collateral * After the client pays all principle and interest, Debt Management officer prepares and signs on Loan Closing Announcement (Thong bao dong h? so vay). * Client officer informs client of Loan Contract Liquidation (Form 7. 2). * Debt Management officer hands over all relevant documents to Client/ Project Investment Division before the former Division transfers to clients and sends the original of Handover Record (signed by both handover and takeover) to Debt Management for storage purpose. * Finally, Client/ Project Investment Division cancel Collateral Transaction Registry. | |

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Prometheus Essay

Johann wolfgang Von Goethe â€Å"Prometheus† 1. Prometheus is the speaker of this poem, and he is speaking to the god of the gods. 2. In the first stanza, a simile occurs, it says â€Å"And, like the boy who lops the thistles’ heads† This simile here was revealed by Prometheus and he was referring Zeus to an evil trickster young man. Furthermore, the purpose of this simile is to visualize the boy who is ripping off the heads of a beautiful flower, which is an evil action. However, The reason that Prometheus is referring Zeus to this evil young man is because he thinks that he is an innocent person and Zeus is abusing him. 3. In the second stanza, Prometheus explains the procedure to make all the Gods powerless. Prometheus, who is the speaker of the poem, suggests that Gods are not confident enough of their place and they feel weak. The Gods are nourishing their hunger by people’s worship, prayer, and their obedient towards him. However, the speaker also reveals that they are taking advantage of people who are in trouble, therefore people would rely on them. In conclusion, the Gods would not be as powerful without people’s prayer and worship. 4. The rhetorical questions in stanza five focuses on the God and their unique characteristic such as selfishness. Prometheus reveals their personality in a negative way. Prometheus says that Gods do not help people who are in trouble if they don’t get a reward from it. Also, he mentions that if a God feels pity on another God, the other Gods would try to avoid that God and treat him differently. In the last rhetorical question in the last sentence is towards the readers, exploring the reason why people would worship these kinds of Gods. The overall effect on this series is to convince people to stand on Prometheus’s side and avoid the Gods. 5. in the fifth stanza, there are two words which are personified. These words are time and fate. In the text, it says â€Å"time is omnipotent† which mean time is very powerful and have authority to rule and control over man. And another one is fate; it says â€Å"fate is eternal that never dies or ending† It emphasizes that fate is powerful as well as time.                                    6. Dreams was an image used in stanza six, was helping the reader to learn about the speaker. He says that even his dream or wish is not accomplished, he will not run away. He will follow his dream and not be defeated no matter what happens. 7. He says that he will create a human being who is just like him. So, the Gods would not get any prayer or worship from the people. Prometheus plans to destroy the gods using human beings. 8. The overall tone of this poem is anger and hate. Prometheus curse towards Gods and especially Zeus. Prometheus’s strong tone reveals his anger and feeling towards Zeus. Lord Byron (George Gordon Byron) â€Å"Prometheus† 1. There are two significant differences between both â€Å"Prometheus† poems. The poem from Von Goethe is written in Prometheus’s point of view and he was addressing it to Zeus. But, the other one is written in Lord Byron’s point of view. Where â€Å"Prometheus† is unidentified. In this poem, there is no direct evidence that we can find the speaker, but we could assume who it is addressing to, which Prometheus. In addition, the poem by Von Goethe is full of anger and hate towards Gods, However, the poem by Lord Byron is much more calm and has some love towards Prometheus 2. The rock, the vulture, and the pain. These three symbols are representing Prometheus’s punishment by Zeus. According to Prometheus’s myth, he is chained to the rock and he is getting tortured by the vulture which comes everyday and eats Prometheus’s river. The poem is saying Prometheus sacrificed himself to help human, which caused him to feel the pain that never ends. 3. â€Å"The suffocation sense of woe†¦ And then is jealous lest the sky should have a listener† Instantly, I could imagine how big this woe could be that it is enough to suffocate one, it doesn’t mean that woe itself suffocating physically. It means that the sense of woe is too concerning that it suffocating one mentally. Also, sky is personified and the image of Prometheus arises. This quote is saying Prometheus is suffering because of loneliness too. He has no company but the sky, to talk to. The loneliness causes him to have more pain. 4. These three words are creating an image of heaven and hell. The word â€Å"Fate† used to represent heaven and â€Å"Hate† represent hell. 5. Thunderer is Zeus. Zeus’s main symbol is lightening or thunder. 6. The speaker gives an image of Prometheus getting punished by Zeus and how much he is enduring the pain and the torture. The speaker also gives the reader an idea of the cruelty of Zeus. 7. â€Å"Man† defines a symbol referring to Prometheus. 8. I think Prometheus is a symbol for rebel, but also a reader. I agree with the speaker’s statement, because even Prometheus is one of gods, he loved human more than his own kind. Prometheus decided to disobey Zeus and helped human by stealing fire from god. By this event, human could have enough power to stand by themselves without asking for help to gods. 9. This statement is paradox, because usually death is not good thing, but it is good thing for Prometheus. Prometheus never gave up or regrets his choice even he is getting torture every day, so if he dies finally, he will not have any pain. Also, Lord Byron was Christian and he believed there is an afterlife. So, if Prometheus dies

Friday, September 27, 2019

Comprtive nlysis of Mrketing Communictions strtegies nd mix for the Case Study

Comprtive nlysis of Mrketing Communictions strtegies nd mix for the Col drinks in the UK - Case Study Example From this paper it is clear that  the totÐ °l UK beverÐ °ge mÐ °rket is both lÐ °rge Ð °nd competitive. BrÐ °nds of soft drinks compete not only Ð °gÐ °inst eÐ °ch other but Ð °lso Ð °gÐ °inst other types of beverÐ °ges including coffee, milk, Ð °lcoholic beverÐ °ges, sports drinks, bottled wÐ °ter, Ð °nd vegetÐ °ble juices. The beverÐ °ge industry produces Ð °nnuÐ °lly close to 53 billion gÐ °llons, with soft drinks tÐ °king up the lÐ °rgest cÐ °tegory Ð °t 15.3 billion gÐ °llons for Ð ° 29% shÐ °re. The typicÐ °l Ð mericÐ °n consumes Ð °bout 55 gÐ °llons of soft drinks Ð °nnuÐ °lly (Ð °bout 19 ounces per dÐ °y), in compÐ °rison to 22 gÐ °llons of beer, 22 gÐ °llons of milk, Ð °nd 17 gÐ °llons of coffee.This essay highlights that CocÐ °- ColÐ ° brÐ °nds dominÐ °te the soft drink mÐ °rket with 43.7% shÐ °re Ð °nd Pepsi brÐ °nds follow with 31.6% shÐ °re. The two compÐ °nies thus creÐ °te Ð ° duopoly, controlling Ð ° vÐ °st 7 5.3% of the soft drink mÐ °rket. The third rÐ °nked compÐ °ny, CÐ °dbury Schweppes PLC, which owns 7-Up, Dr Pepper, Ð °nd UK interests for RoyÐ °l Crown ColÐ °, hÐ °s Ð ° mÐ °rket shÐ °re of 15.6%, less thÐ °n hÐ °lf thÐ °t of Pepsi. The fourth-rÐ °nked, Toronto-bÐ °sed Cott CorporÐ °tion, which produces Ð ° number of privÐ °te lÐ °bel drinks including WÐ °l-MÐ °rt's SÐ °m's Choice, is even fÐ °rther in the distÐ °nce with Ð ° 3.8% shÐ °re. Ð ll other compÐ °nies Ð °nd privÐ °te lÐ °bels, including the Double- ColÐ ° Co., Ð °re left to fight over the remÐ °ining 5.3% of the totÐ °l mÐ °rket.  CocÐ °- ColÐ °, Pepsi-ColÐ °, Ð °nd CÐ °dbury Schweppes own Ð °ll of the top-10 brÐ °nds.... The beverge industry produces nnully close to 53 billion gllons, with soft drinks tking up the lrgest ctegory t 15.3 billion gllons for 29% shre. The typicl mericn consumes bout 55 gllons of soft drinks nnully (bout 19 ounces per dy), in comprison to 22 gllons of beer, 22 gllons of milk, nd 17 gllons of coffee (Bentley 2002). ccording to Beverge Digest (2002) dt, Coc- Col brnds dominte the soft drink mrket with 43.7% shre nd Pepsi brnds follow with 31.6% shre. The two compnies thus crete duopoly, controlling vst 75.3% of the soft drink mrket. The third rnked compny, Cdbury Schweppes PLC, which owns 7-Up, Dr Pepper, nd UK interests for Royl Crown Col, hs mrket shre of 15.6%, less thn hlf tht of Pepsi. The fourth-rnked, Toronto-bsed Cott Corportion, which produces number of privte lbel drinks including Wl-Mrt's Sm's Choice, is even frther in the distnce with 3.8% shre. ll other compnies nd privte lbels, including the Double- Col Co., re left to fight over the remining 5.3% of the totl mrket. Coc- Col, Pepsi-Col, nd Cdbury Schweppes own ll of the top-10 brnds (Beverge Digest 2002). Double- Col is noticebly bsent, either s compny of brnd, from either of the most recent top-10 lists. In 1997, however, the Double- Col Co. ws rnked ninth (Beverge Digest 1998). fter Coc- Col, Pepsi-Col, nd Royl Crown Col, Double- Col hs the distinction of being the fourth-lrgest col brnd in the U.S (Beverge World 2001). Reserch methods This study is guided by three bsic reserch questions: RQ1: How does Double-Col's historicl evolution mong other soft drink brnds influence the compny's bility to compete in the current competitive environment RQ2: Wht is the mening of Double- Col brnds to consumers, nd wht role do the brnds ply in their lives RQ3:

Which Criteria Might Be Most Appropriate for Assessing the Essay

Which Criteria Might Be Most Appropriate for Assessing the Sustainability of Building Materials - Essay Example The resources used to fuel this economic growth (fossil fuels, minerals, fresh water, wood etc.) are being depleted at a very alarming rate. Issues such as global warming, pollution etc. has raised concerns about the future of life on the planet. Realizing the gravity of the situation, the community of scientists and engineers are now promoting sustainable practices in the various fields of engineering (Braganca, Mateus and Koukarri, 2010). This includes lesser dependence on the fossil fuels with increased power production from renewable energy resources, energy conservation through more efficient production systems and building designs and the use of sustainable and recyclable materials in construction industry and consumer goods. The construction industry currently consumes a huge amount of resources mainly the building materials such as structure steel, concrete, cement, sand, gravel, wood, and glass etc. The current annual consumption of structure steel in USA alone is 7.1 millio n metric tones. On the completion of its lifecycle, as the building is destroyed for renovation or incorporation of new designs, this material is usually dumped in waste land and creates environmental issues. Moreover, the materials traditionally used for construction such as masonry bricks and concrete are good conductors of heat and hence they significantly increase the energy consumption for cooling and heating the building. Operation and maintenance of buildings is also a very important concern while selecting the building materials. Deterioration of traditional building materials causes waste materials to escape in to the atmosphere. The maintenance of buildings usually causes use of the same materials with the same drawbacks. It is also reported that the traditional construction materials are responsible for toxic emissions to both outdoors and indoors of the building causing damaging effects on the human health. The above discussion shows that the traditional practices involv e wastage of materials and energy and in most of the cases has deteriorating effects on the environment. It is hence of great importance that the materials used for construction must be environment friendly and sustainable. When it comes to engineering design and material selection process, it is important that the decisions are made on the basis of quantified data rather than abstract observations and experiences. It is important to measure how much a material is environment friendly or to what extent it has the damaging effect on the environment. Hence as the first step towards the use of sustainable materials in the building design, the criteria on which the sustainability of a building is measured should be specified. This paper discusses the research made in this regard and summarizes the criteria used by different researchers and in different regions around the globe. According to Oxford dictionary sustainability is defined as the ‘conservation of the ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources’. With reference to the building materials, the term implies that the selection of building materials should be made considering the environmental effect of their production and usage. Such materials should be given preference which are recyclable, have none or negligible emissions, have very low carbon foot print during their production and transportation. There are several different properties which are desirable in building materials in order to increase their sustainability. The manufacturing processes for the materials should involve minimum green house gas emissions or other harmful environment effects. The emissions from the building mate

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Effective Project Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Effective Project Management - Essay Example Effective projects are based on time management which ensures that certain activities are undertaken and can be altered to reduce the overload on critical resources. This approach is called resource leveling and, whilst it enables resources to be used more effectively, it may result in the project taking longer to complete if it is necessary to reschedule activities that are on the critical path. Ford and General Motors follow this approach in production and operational management in order to ensure high level of productivity. Resource leveling directs to schedule flows through batch working and demand dependent oriented systems in order to maximize the output. This approach emphasizes the desirability of ensuring a steady flow through the system like balanced flow, rather than seeking to keep all resources busy. Samsung follows time -boxed scheduling method (Spinner, 1998). The advantage of this approach is that its production activities are rescheduled to take account of float with in non-critical activities, the overall completion date would not be affected. Thus, Samsung's executives admit that this technique is salubrious because it requires project workers to understand thoroughly the steps that needed to be taken to implement their projects. Shiseido, the forth world leader in cosmetics industry, uses critical chain scheduling in order to produce their deliverables faster than ever. The advantage of the approaches mentioned above is that they allow the companies to meet customer expectations and ensure on time delivery. While users insist that a deliverable be produced in an impossibly short time frame, they are reluctant to drop any desired features in order to make the time frame realistic (Bateman and Snell 2004). Money Many companies with excellent products have gone out of business simply because they ran out of cash and financial resources. Cash shortages can result if accounts receivable are not collected promptly, if a key customer disappears, if money is tied up in equipment, or if financial reserves are limited. Similarly, a company will not stay in business long unless it achieves profits. There are countless ways for companies to fail to achieve their profit objectives. For instance, Shiseido, running in-house projects, does not estimate the cost of its internal staff working on the project, but does estimate the cost of contractors and suppliers. The problem is that the company does not have systems in place to allow it to accurately track and record the time people spend on individual projects. Samsung calculates the actual cost per unit of time. This approach allows company to ensure normal modes of working and availability. Ford calculates the efficiency levels for each resource. It pay s a special attention to capital and revenue expenditure budgets (Fleetham, 1989).. Plans reduced to specific figures show where money is going or where physical input and output have taken place. General Motors widely uses MRP II which generates a forecast of demand and a manufacturing plan is developed to meet those demands. This plan drives the issue of works orders ( Effective projects need effective management of financial resources to make plans effective, within the budget limits. The budgets are also used as checks on the actual results of a business (Burkun 2005).

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Fair trade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Fair trade - Essay Example World trade has been increasing at an average rate of six percent for the last 20 years, which is twice the rate of world output. The integration of the world economy with the help of trade has lifted the living standards of the people within these developing nations, which is a positive sign. Sustained and consistent economic growth requires policies that can open trade and investment with the rest of the world. There is proof to it and it is that there has not been a single nation that has achieved economic stability without being open to the world for trade. International trade requires liberalization, i.e., openness to all and sundry within the world no matter what. The living standards are in direct proportion with them. There is a high need to promote and liberalize the manner in which trade is carried out within the world economy. It needs to be more generous to everyone and anyone as well as helpful for the developing nations so that more and more trade is carried out between the economic world markets. (Miles, 2006) Agriculture is one such example of being more liberal for the international trade market. Liberalization by both industrial and developing nations is necessary to realize trade’s potential that acts as a driving force for economic growth and de velopment. It is up to the industrial and developed nations to be more broadminded towards the developing ones so that trade barriers are removed in the wake of open trade between all the countries listed in the economic world. Fair trade is a social movement which is organized in nature and it basically presents a model which is accepted worldwide. It comes directly under the norms of the international trade regimes whereby it promotes payment of a fair price in accordance with the social and environmental standards in different areas of production related with goods and supplies. Fair trade has the emphasis on exporting goods and

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Critical Review of a paper by Lindsay G and Muijs D (2006) Challenging Lab Report

Critical Review of a paper by Lindsay G and Muijs D (2006) Challenging Underachievement in boys - Lab Report Example In this study, schools influenced ethos by educating teachers perceptions of underachieving groups and educating pupils views of school and learning. In other words, they looked at the leadership of the school and worked downward to the pupils to learn the culture of the school. To be effective, this involved an emphasis on the school connecting to the community and making a high level of expectations known. The school also needs to take on the culture values of the community. The school must be re-socialized to reflect community values. Parental involvement and community outreach have been found to be important to establish a pride in the school system. Part of ethos is the philosophy of the teachers toward addressing learning concerns which involves changing the curriculum and teaching techniques for different pupil groups. It also involves whether or not a vocational or basic skills orientation is chooses for pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds. It appears that the approach used in the schools in the studies leaned toward the vocational orientation. There were two general approaches used in the schools studied. The effective school mode is where the focus is optimizing achievement for all students so it is ethnicity free and gender free. Specific groups are not targeted but rather they are integrated completely within the greater student body. There is some evidence that Caribbean, Indian and Pakistani students attain more in this type of school if intermixed with mainly a white student population. The second approach does target specific sub-groups. The important issue seems to be why this targeting is used and how the target groups are chosen. It is best to use a general profile of the student rather than ethnicity as the grouping criteria, according to this study.This study provides evidence that schools can find success in underachievement in specific groups of boys. This is democratic action research and to incorporated both quantitative methods using multi-level modeling to identify schools and qualitative methods to collect opinions of those involved in the educational process. Study Methods It is important to look at how this study was done. It is democratic action research. This is a form of research that uses non researchers to conduct the study. This form of research has been criticized because these individuals do not know how to do research. This particular study used researchers to supervise the work as well as consult on the design, to maintain its integrity.The first staged of the study searched for the schools to be used in the study. They were looking for schools that showed that they were having some success in improving the achievement of the target groups of boys, black Caribbean, African and UK-born boys. Standardized test uses by the British school system were used as a measure to determine which schools showed success. The second stage was to interview head teachers and a sample of other teachers and a sample of students. The interviews were semi-structured, recorded and written up immediately following the interview. A thematic analysis was then done to identify key themes and sub-themes.Multi-level modeling

Monday, September 23, 2019

Assignments questions for course (Introduction to Mass Media 110 01) Assignment

Assignments questions for course (Introduction to Mass Media 110 01) - Assignment Example In terms of moral value, the song is not offensive and can be enjoyed by people of all ages. In the dimension of emotions, the song teaches one to smile even in the face of adversity. This is in the line where the singer says that he does not car whether someone gives them bad news. In the cognitive dimension, the song opens up the mind to feel happiness by comparing it with sunshine and freedom. â€Å"Scandals† is a TV series that is premiered on the TV. The themes of this series are bad governance, use of power to one’s advantage and infidelity. A child who is 5-8 years watching this show would learn how the people in government operate and more on national affairs such as elections. Emotionally, the child would learn to let reason override their emotions. Morally, the child would learn that they should get what they want in life even when it involves hurting other people. If a child watched the show through adolescence without parental guidance they would tend to have delinquency behavior as they would tend to believe that even if they make a mistake, everything can be

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Hazard of Coal and Coal Mining to Human Health Essay Example for Free

Hazard of Coal and Coal Mining to Human Health Essay Coal is a solid but brittle sedimentary rock with a natural brown to black color and is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and lesser amounts o f sulphur and trace elements. Coal is classified into four types depending on the carbo n, oxygen and hydrogen content on which the higher the carbon content, the more energy the coal contains (Coal at a Glance, 2009). The amount of energy in coal is define d by the heat value measured by British thermal units (Btu). One Btu is equivalent to the amount of energy in a single match (RockTalk, 2005). The four types of coal include lignite, sub bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite. The lowest rank of the coal i s lignite and has a heating value of 4,000 to 8,300 British thermal units (Btu) per pound. This type is the softest with high moisture content, least amount of carbon a nd is mainly used to produce electricity. The second least of the four types is sub-bituminous coal with a heating value of 8,300 to 13,000 Btu per pound and contains 35 to 45 percent carbon. After addition of more heat and pressure on lignite, bituminous coal is formed which is made of many tiny layers. It contains 11,000 to 15,500 Btu per pound heating value and is an important fuel for the steel and iron industries. Of the commonly minable coals, anthracite is the hardest and has a heating value of 15,000 Btu per p ound containing 86 to 97 percent carbon (Coal at a Glance, 2009). Coal is a non-renewable source of energy because it takes million of years to form. It has become a powerhouse by the 1800’s in America in which the people used coal to manufacture goods and to power steamships and railroad engines . It was noted that after the American Civil war, coal was used to make iron and steel and by the end of 1800’s, people used coal to make electricity. In the 1900’s, coal is the mainstay for the nation’s business and industries. Coal stayed America’s number one energy source until petroleum was used for petroleum products that became a demand. In 2009, 93.6 percent of all the coal in the United States was used for electricity production. Coal generates almost half of the electricity used in the U.S (Coal at a Glance, 2009). Based from Gree n World Investor (2011), coal has numerous uses primarily as a source of fuel and as a rich carbon source. It also plays an important role in cement and steel industries and coal is the largest source of electricity production. Coal is mainly used as fuel to generate electricity t hrough combustion. In steel production, coal together with iron, are the two raw materials used to produce steel in which the former is used as a fuel to smelt the iron in furnace until the cast iron is further refined. Similar with electricity and cement production, coal is also being used as a fuel in cement industry. Furthermore, paper a nd aluminum industry also uses coal as a fuel since coal is cheap and very available for these types of industries that are huge consumers of energy fuel. According to World Coal Association (2012), â€Å"the biggest market for coal is Asia, which currently accounts for over 65% of global coal consumption; although China is responsible for a significant proportion of this. Many countries do not have n atural energy resources sufficient to cover their energy needs, and therefore need to import energy to help meet their requirements. Japan, Chinese Taipei and Korea, for example, import significant quantities of steam coal for electricity generation and co king coal for steel production†. They also added that coal users further include alumina refineries and chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Chemical products can be produced from the by-products of coal. Refined coal tar is used in the manufacture of c hemicals, such as creosote oil, naphthalene, phenol, and benzene. Despite the myriad benefits coal has to offer, t here is always a disadvantage of using it. According to Fossil Fuel Resources (2012), coal burning causes the emission of harmful waste such as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphuric acids, arsenic and ash. Furthermore, coal emits twice as much carbon dioxide compared to natural gas in producing the same level of heat which increases the level of emission of greenhouses ga ses into the earth’s atmosphere. As well as large factories and power industry that burn coal causes acid rain in some areas. Moreover, coal mining damages t he landscape a nd the environment as a whole plus t he large and noisy equipment used for mining may a ffect local wildlife. Transportation of coal can also be a problem since it requires extensive transportation system and causes additional pollution from vehicle emissions. Another huge disadvantage is that the coal is a non-renewable energy source and thi s millennium, coal can be depleted if burning of coal is continued in the future. Likewise, in coal mining industry, health difficulties of miners occur and fatalities due to dangerous nature of work increase. This paper would be tackling about the Health Hazard that is imposed otherwise could be caused by coal and coal mi ning. However, it is important to understand the impact of this activity to economy and environment, which could help in knowing the impact to health t hus socioeconomic and environmental effects of coal mining are at the same time discussed. Developing co untries seek to exploit mineral resources to provide needed revenue thus, mineral wealth is a part of some nation’s natural capital (Davis and Tilton, 2003). However, Sideri and Johns (1990) stated that mineral development does not always boost a country’s economic growth and in some cases contribute to increased poverty. Some of the contributing factors for this misfortune were low level of employment, institutional corruption and mismanagement (Sideri and Johns, 1990). Coal industry development may result in national economic growth however, the benefits are not equally shared, causing local communities nearest to the mining site suffer the most. Miranda et. al (1998) added that mining as a general triggers negative impacts such as alcoholism, prostitution a nd sexually transmitted disease. According to Dr. Michael Hendryx (2009), â€Å"Areas with especially heavy mining have the highest unemployment rates in the region contrary to the common perception that mining contributes to overall employment†. S ynapse Energy Economics (2009) added, referring to Appalachia where mountaintop removal for coal mining is being done, â€Å"History shows that the transition from deep to surface mining devastated the region economically, and that the prosperity of mining companies has not gone hand in hand with the economi c welfare of coal mine workers. Appalachia has suffered from current and persistent economic di stress, and that this distress has been associated with employment in the mining industry, particularly coal mining.† Mountaintop removal coal mining remove the miner from the process, replacing manpower with machinery, and lowering the coal companies’ overhead cost (Appalachian Voices, 2012). From the article â€Å"Mortality in Appalachian Coal Mining Regions: The Value of Statistical Life Lost† authored by Michael Hendryx and Melissa M. Ahern (2009), it was stated that the Appalachian region of the United States has long been associated with severe socioeconomic disadvantages. These results to a poor public health comprising elevated morbidity and mortality rates for a variety of serious, chronic conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, and some forms of cancer. Furthermore, recent studies have confirmed that health discrepancies exist in coal mining regions of Appalachia compared with other areas of the region or the nation . These discrepancies include elevated mortality rates for total causes, lung cancer, and some chronic illnesses. It was noted that t hese studies showed that mortality is related to higher poverty, lower educati on levels, and smoking behavior, and further s uggested that environmental pollution from the mining industry is a contributing factor. In the study of Paul Younger (2004) , â€Å"Environmental impacts of coal mining and associated wastes: a geochemical perspec tive†, it was stated that in the early years of coal mining, impact on the environment adversely affect long -established agricultural interests. The negative impacts of coal mining came to be accepted as a by-product of the generation of coal-based wealth d uring the time when coal trade dominate regional economies in mining districts. These negative impacts became unacceptable when large-scale mining began and took place in major coal-mining economies. It was further stated in the study that t he environmental impacts of coal mining are results of the exposure of reduced earth materials that involves coal and others, to the oxidizing power of the Earth’s atmosphere. The study recognize subcategories of impacts under five major headings consisting of air pollu tion, fire hazards, ground deformation, water pollution and water resource depletion. Production of large quantities of waste is one major environmental issue that can be caused by coal mining. The impacts are more widespread in open-casts compared to underground mining, which produces less waste. Severe impacts could cause degradation of aquatic and marine resources and causes water quality reduction. According to Johnson (1997), erosion after heavy rainfall pushes waste rock piles and runoffs to nearby waste bodies and sometimes, this lead to disruption, diversion, and changing of slope and bank stability of stream channel and t hese disturbances significantly reduces the water quality. Ripley (1996) added that higher sediment concentrations increase the t urbidity of natural waters which lowers the available light to aquatic plant for photosynthesis. Elimination of important food source and decreased available habitat for fish to migrate and spawn usually happens if there is increased sediment loads that s uffocate organisms in marine organisms (Johnson, 1997). Fur thermore, higher sediments decrease the depth of water bodies which could contribute to flood (Mason, 1997). Deforestation is also a major indirect environmental impact of coal mining especially i n opencast or surface mining. Biodiversity is greatly affected , more importantly the removal of vegetation that alters the shelter and the availability of food for the wildlife. Coal mining also poses an environmental alarm in wetlands such as estuaries, mangroves and floodplains that actually served as natural filters of pollution as well as provide habitat for aquatic organisms. These areas are destroyed through direct habitat elimination or pollution from washable coals that were washed to produc e a clean pure coal (H.A. Mooney et al, 1995). Mining activities in general has many environmental impacts but at the same time, poses a significant risk to human health. The health cost of mining operations most of the time outweighs the advantages gaine d ( Yeboah, J.Y, 2008). Possible hazard including diseases or illnesses acquired from coal mining is discussed below as summary of various studies and articles about health risks caused by exposure to coal and coal mining. The association of pneumoconiosi s and other respiratory health risks with exposure to respirable mixed dust was identified in the study of Love R.G, Miller B.G., 6 The Hazards of Coal and Coal Mining to Human Health et. al. (1997), entitled â€Å"Respiratory health effects of opencast coalmining: a cross sectional study of current workers† conducted in United Kingdom opencast coal mines. The study carried out 1,224 men and 25 women at nine large and medium sized opencast sites in England, Scotland and Wales. Full sized chest radiographs, respiratory symptoms, occupational history questionnaires, and simple spirometry were used in the study to characterize the respiratory health of the workforce. In addition, logistic or multiple regression techniques were utilized to examine relations between indices of exposure and respiratory health. The study c oncluded that the frequency of (mostly mild) chest radiographic abnormalities is associated with working in the dustier, preproduction jobs in the coal mining industry. Although some of these mild abnormalities may be non -occupational (due to aging or smok ing), the association with exposure indicates a small risk of pneumoconiosis in these men, and the need to monitor and control exposures, particularly in the high-risk occupations. This study of respiratory health effects of opencast coal mining seems unalarming and maybe controlled since it was indicated that there is a small risk of pneumoconiosis among miners, however, coal mining effects to humans are not just limited to respiratory health. Furthermore, there are various studies that could prove that co al mining or coal combustion is a great contributing factor of respiratory illnesses most especially black lung disease. The negative impact of coal mining pollution to public health is analyzed in a study in West Virginia. Michael Hendryx and Melissa Ahern (2008) used the data from a 2001 research survey correlated with data from West Virginia Geological and economic survey showing volume of coal production from mining. Hendryx and Ahern study was â€Å"Relations between Health Indicators and Residential Proximity to Coal Mining in West Virginia† which have examined the coal mining in West Virginia if it is related to poorer health status and incidence of chronic illness. The study used data from a survey of 16, 493 West Virginians merged with county- level coal production and other covariates in investigating the relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining. The research sought to find whether the effects of coal mining may result only from socioeconomic factors such as inco me and education problems together with environmental exposure problems or it a lso a ffects the health aspect of the people. It was emphasized that quantitative research on health consequences of residential proximity to coal mining is limited to a few stud ies of respiratory illness, which was conducted in Great Britain. With t hese few studies, one showed no effect of coal mining but there are studies t hat found increased risks. These were the main reason why this study was conducted. The result of the study showed that â€Å"As coal production increased, health status worsened, and rates of cardiopulmonary disease, lung disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and kidney disease increased. Within larger disease categories, specific types of disease associated with coal production included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), black lung disease, and h ypertension.† The research found t hat the result of black lung disease is higher in men compared to women since this condition affects miner’s which are men. The risks for coal -associated illnesses increase with exposure to coal by-products. Toxins and impurities in coal cause kidney disease, hypertension and other cardiovascular disease. The effects also resulted from the general inflammatory or systemic consequences of inhaled particles and these effects may be multi -factorial, a result of slurry holdings that leach toxins into drinking water and air pollution effects of coal mining and washing. This study served as a screening test to examine whether co al mining poses a health risk for adults living near the mining site. The researcher recommended that confirmatory tests should be undertaken to establish mechanism of action, magnitude, and health consequences of an exposure effect. Another study of health hazard brought by coal mining is â€Å"The association between mountaintop mining and birth defects among live births in ce ntral Appalachia, 1996–2003†, a research study authored by Melissa Ahern et. al.(2011). This study examined birth defects in mountaintop coal mining areas compared to other coal mining areas and in non-mining areas of central A ppalachia. The researchers aimed to know if higher birth-defect rates are present in mountaintop mining areas . Moreover, this study analyzed 1996-2003 live births i n four Central Appalachian states using natality files from National Center for Health Statistics. It was stated from the study that â€Å"The prevalence rate ratio (PRR) for any birth defect was significantly higher in mountaintop m ining areas compared to n on-mining areas, but was not higher in the non m ountaintop mining areas, after controlling for covariates. Rates were significantly higher in m ountain top m ining areas for six of seventy types of defects: circulatory/ respiratory, central nervous system, m usculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and ‘other’.† It was found out that mountaintop- mining effects became more pronounced in the latter years (2000–2003) versus earlier years (1996–1999.). Furthermore, it was mentioned that the elevated birth defect rates are partly a function of socioeconomic disadvantage, but remain elevated after controlling for those risks. They also added that both socioeconomic and e nvironmenta l inf luences in mountaintop mining areas maybe contributing factors. In a researc h article authored by Hans L. Falk and William Jurgelski, Jr., â€Å"Health Effects of Coal Mining and Combustion: Carcinogens and Cofactors†, carcinogens and cofactors that may be present in coal is being tackled. As an epidemiologic evidence of carcinogenic risks in coal mining and combustion, it was mentioned that several epidemiological studies imply that the incidence of gastric carcinoma in coal miners is elevated above that of comparable segments of the general population not engaged in mining of coal. On t he other hand, the article noted that death rate of coal miners from lung cancer is appreciably lower than the rate for non-miners of comparable age. It was explained that the data obtained from various studies about lower rate of lung cancer among coal miners strongly suggest that an unknown factor probably coal dust, exerts a protective effect from acquiring cancer. It was further noted that even though the coal dust is beneficial with regard to lung cancer, it is the causative factor of black lung disease. Therefore, while lung cancer rates might not increase as a result of an expansion of coal production, black lung and other respiratory diseases would probably become more prevalent. Health effect of exposure to respirable coal mine dust according to Center for Disease and Control Prevention includes Black Lung Disease or Coal Worker’s Pneumocosis (CWP), silicosis, mixed -dust pneumoconiosis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). CWP was defined as a chronic dust disease of the lung and its sequelae, including respiratory and pulmonary impairments, arising out of coal mine employment. It was moreover defined as parenchymal lung disease produced by deposits of coal dust in the lung and the response of the host to the retained dust. The primary lesion of CWP is like that of silicosis however, the amount and nature of dust and quantity and disposition of fibrous tissue and the presence of emphysema differs. Coal macules are rounded, irregular and ranges from 1 to 5 millimeters, lesions are distributed symmetrically found in both lungs with a greater concentration in the upper lobes (Attfield and Wagner, 1992). The proportion of dust, cellular material, or collagen varies depending on the rank of coal dust inhaled (Cotes and Steel, 1987). Silicosis develops when respirable silica inhaled is deposited in the lungs and varies from chronic, complicated, accelerated, or acute. Third is mixed -dust pneumoconiosis, which describes pulmonary lesions where crystalline silica is deposited combined with less fibrogenic dusts as iron oxides, kaolin, mica and coal (Silicosis and Silicate Disease Comittee, 1988). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) refers to three disease processes which involve chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma which are all characterized by airway dysfunction (Barnhart, 1994). COPD is mainly caused by cigarette smoking nevertheless, it could also be caused by air pollution and exposure to dust. Chronic bronchitis is associated with airflow obstruction and abnormalities in gas exchange (Barnhart, 1994). Coal dust and its sequelae are not the only health hazards of coal mining. Common occupational hazards brought by mining are also applied in mining coal. According to Institute for Occupational and Safety Development (2006), â€Å"M ining poses tremendous risks to life and limb, not only to miners but to community as well †. Hazardous mining operations caused both directly and indirectly countless accident. Hazards presented by mining to workers include intense exposure to heat, poor ventilation, fumes, repetitive stress injury, intense noise, manual handling of heavy machinery aside from biological and chemical hazard. Miner’s tend to have fluid and salt deficiency due to constant sweating since hydration is very limited combined with inte nse heat especially in underground mining sites. Furthermore, miners could have increased heart stress, heat stroke, and fertility reduction due to high temperature. Poor ventilation on the other hand, steals the oxygen from the body which results to brain malfunction and this can lead to death. Vibration from handling or operating large machines could result to permanent bone damage and vibration syndrome or dead finger syndrome that could proceed to hand and finger gangrene. The constant shaking could als o progressed to digestive problems because of constant moving of internal organs. Hearing impairment or disruption of body functions such as blood circulation and hormone imbalance could be a result of noise and hazardous sound that comes from drilling, blasting among others. Manual lifting of materials can cause back troubles leading to acute pain. Based from the government statistics, a ccidents in the industry of mining was used to be 0.1% in the year 2000 of the total occupational accidents however in 2 002 it increased to 1.7% of the total accidents which is in fact only 0.3% of the total labor force was into mining and this poses a very dangerous trend for mining ( IODC, 2006). Hazards mentioned above are, of course, i nevitable due to the nature of the activity itself. Yet, there are still other ways for them, in a way, to minimize the occurrence of these while working. In line with this is the importance of risk management. To be aware of the Risk Management is very important most espe cially when involving to activities that could pose risk not only to one ’s heal th but also to emotional, psychosocial, economical and e nvironmental aspect of an individual. Risk management is mainly the identification, assessment and prioritizations of threats brought about the actions going through or have gone through already. Through this method, t he pros and cons o f the action to be considered could be weighed. In t his discussion paper, certain risks that should have been given much attention b y the implementers of coal mining are tackled. From the hazards mentioned above, risk management that could minimize the impact includes the following assessment. There should have been even just an exhaust fan or some opening that some air could enter for them to be able to breathe as normally as possible. Also, to be able to minimize cases of deafness, miners are advised to wear ear plugs when heavy equipment is be i ng operated. Through this, noise could be minimized. It will also be advisable for the miners to have a sufficient supply of water with them as they progress with their work. Proper hydration is very much essential for them because there is poor ventilation inside the mine. The beverage they have with them should contain electrolytes for them to minimize incidence of fluid and salt deficiencies. An excerpt taken from t he article of Institute of Occupational Health and Safety Development s tates that, â€Å"Mines exposes workers to different types of airborne particulates, making them vulnerable to systemic toxic effects due to the absorption of coal dus t. Coupled with poor ventilation, this can trigger accidents and cause death to workers. RSI being a soft -issue disorder is caused by overloading of particular muscle group from repetitive use or maintenance of constrained postures. Miners who suffer from RSI complain of weakness of the affected muscles, heaviness, pins and needles sensation and numbness.† In this hazard, miners are expected to have protective masks that cou ld keep them from inhaling coal dust. Without the masks, this makes them very much vulnerable, primarily, to respiratory diseases and to other health -related illnesses. Presence of openings within the mines should also be considered for them to be able to breathe normally as possible. According to an article posted on, â€Å"Coal dust settles like pollen over the surrounding areas.† As what we ha ve discussed o n our Environmental Health class this s ummer, coal dust measures above 100 µm. Thus, it could only irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and throat but not going further . Yet, considering that there is an occurence of anthracosis, which is detect ed primarily in the lungs. There is a contradiction between this standard measurement and association and the chemical effect of the inhalation of coal dust. According to a study conducted by Sapko,M. J, et. al, â€Å"Particle size can vary both within and between mines, since size is dependent on several factors such as mine type (i.e., longwall or continuous miner, along with cutting speed and depth) and coal seam type. In addition to total incombustible content and methane concentration, the coal dust particle size should be considered as an essential part of the explosibility assessment strategy in underground coal mines.â€Å" Coal mining creates several billion gallons of coal slurry, which contains extremely high levels of mercury, cadmium, and nickel. Although lauded by mining companies that this is a safer, more efficient way to produce coal, this type of strip mining has evoked strong protests from environmentalists and people who reside near coal mining areas. Coal mining work can be extremely dangerous, a s the numerous occupational hazards can cause critical injuries or even death. Since coal is also a necessity in our day to day lives, there is no way to be able to totally terminate or stop the operations of coal mining. All we could do is to minimize the risks that could threaten us if we are to put up or be involved in coal mining. References: Ahern M . e t. al. (2011) . The association between mountaintop mining and birth defects among live births in ce ntral Appalachia, 1996–2003. E nvironmental Research ; Volume 111, Issue 6, Pp 838–846 Attfield MD, Wagner GR [1992]. A report on a workshop on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health B Reader certification program. J Occup Med 34:875Colina N P (2006). Briefing on Mining in the Philippines and the effects on Occupational Health and Safety of Mine Workers Conference on Coal Mining . IOHSAD ; Renmin University, Beijing, PROC Disadvantages of Coal Energy- Biggest Contributor to Global Warming is Co al’s Biggest Drawback (2011). G reen World Investor . Retrived from -coal -energybiggest-contributor-to -global -warming-is-coals-biggest-drawback/ Economic Impacts of Mountaintop Removal (2012). Appalachian Voices. Retrieved from mountaintop -removal/economy/ Falk H L J urgelski W,Jr (1979) . Health effects of coal mining and combustion: carcinogens and cofactors.Environ Health Perspect; 33: 203–226. Hamburger T (2010). Pressure builds against mountaintop coal mining. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from na-coal8 2010jan08 Hendryx M . A hern M. (2008). Relations between Health Indicators and Residential Proximity to Coal Mining in West Vi rginia. Public Health 12 The Hazards of Coal and Coal Mining to Human Health Hendryx, M Ahern M. (2009) . Mortality in Appalachian Coal Mining Regions: The Value of Statistical Life Lost. Association of Schools of Public Health Public Health Reports Volume 124. Johnson, S.W. et al. (1997), â€Å"Effects of Submarine Mine Tailings Disposal on Juvenile Yellowfin Sole (Pleuronectes asper): A Laboratory Study,† Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. 36 Love R.G, Miller B .G., et . al. (1997). Respiratory Health Effects Of Opencast Coalmining: A Cross Sectional Study Of Current Workers†. Occupational Environmental Medicine.:54(9): 696. Mason, R.P. (1997), â€Å"Mining Waste Impacts on Stream Ecology,† In C.D. Da Rosa (ed), Golden Dreams, Poisoned Streams, How Reckless Mining Pollutes America’s Waters and How We Can Stop It .Washington, DC: Mineral Policy Center. Miranda, M. A. Blanco-Uribe Q., L. Hernà ¡ndez, J. Ochoa G., E. Yerena (1998), All That Glitters is Not Gold: Balancing Conservation and Development in Venezuela’s Frontier Forests, World Resources Institute: Washington, DC. Ripley, E.A. et al. (1996), Environmental Effects of Mining. Delray Beach, Florida: S t. Lucie Press. Roenker J.M. (2001). The Economic Impact of Coal in Appalachian Kentucky. Center for Business and Economic Research. Sapire R. (2012).Engulfed in a Toxic Cloud: The Effects of Coal Mining On Human Health. Harvard College Global Health Review. Retrieved from -in-a- toxic-cloud- the -effectsof-coal- mining-on- human- health/ Sideri, S. and S. Johns (eds) (1990), Mining for Development in the Third World: Multinational Corporations, State Enterprises and the International Economy. New York: Pergamon Press. The Disadvantages of Coal (2012). Fossil Fuel Resources. Retrieved from -coal Uses of Coal (2012) . World Coal Association. Retrieved from -of-coal/ Yeboah J.Y (2008). E nvironmental And Health Impact Of Mining On Surrounding Communities: A Case Study of Anglogold Ashanti In Obuasi. Kwame Nkrumah 13 The Hazards of Coal and Coal Mining to Human Health University Of Science And Technology : Department Of Geography And Rural Development . Younger P L (2004). Environmental impacts of coal mining and associated wastes: a geochemical perspective . The Geological Society of London

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Eualuation of National Solidarity Program

Eualuation of National Solidarity Program EUALUATION OF NATIONAL SOLIDARITY PROGRAM: PEOPLE PARTICIPATION, CHALLENGES AND SUSTAINBALITY The case of Sayed Abad District of Wardak Province Tariq Salari Table of Contents (Jump to) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Context of the study 1.2. Rationale of the study 1.3. Hypothesis: 1.4. Limitation of the Study: 1.5. Organization of the thesis: ABBREVIATIONS AF Afghani (Currency of Afghanistan) ANDS Afghanistan National Development Strategy AREU Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit AusAID Australian Agency for International Development CDCs Community Development Councils CDP Community Development Plan CRDP Comprehensive Rural Development Program CSO Central Statistics Organization DAC Development Assistance Committee DFID Department for International Development EPA Environmental Protection Agency EU European Union FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FP Facilitating Partner IFAD International Fund for Agriculture GDP Gross Domestic Product HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus ILO International Labour Organization IWG-PA Informal Working Group on Participatory Approaches Methods KW Kilowatt N Number NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NGO Non Governmental Organization NSP National Solidarity Program OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development PDPs Provincial Development plans PIDRA Participatory Integrated Development in Rain-fed Area SAHEE Sustainability for Agriculture, Health, Education and Environment SCA Swedish Committee for Afghanistan UN United Nation UNDP United Nation Development Program UN ESCAP United Nation Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific UNESC United Nation Economic and Social Council UNRISD United Nation Research Institute for Social Development USAID United States Agency for International Development USFAA United States Foreign Assistance Act WB World Bank WCARRD World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development WECD World Commission on Environment and Development WMP Watershed Management Program 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Context of the study In the 1950s and 1960s many top-down development programs failed because of the wrong policies of the governments, donors and non-governmental organizations, which people were not involved in the design and implementation of the projects. World Bank (1994) proclaimed that top-down fashion entailed long bureaucratic process; they prefer participatory approaches because it is â€Å"learning by doing† which means people learn throughout the process. Top-down forms provide limited opportunities for participatory learning and decision-making as well. It obstructs local culture and habits (FAO, 1997). Shah (2012) stated that it is assumed that if local people were involved in the project cycle, it would be more successful. In most countries top-down policies caused the isolation of the people, increase in poverty, social and economic inequalities and deprivation. Many governments, non-governmental organizations and development agencies have acknowledged that traditional top-down approaches in many developing and developed countries failed to reach the benefits of rural people (FAO, 1991). Moreover, Binns et al. (1997) asserts that top-down strategies have failed to raise living standards of rural people; these approaches ignore rural people’s perception, needs and understanding. It is clear that without people’s participation it would be difficult for the planners to understand the socioeconomic and cultural situation, needs, problems and priorities of the rural communities. In the last few years the term of participation has become popular, especially in relation to sustainability of rural development projects (Bagherian et al, 2009). In the 1970s people’s participation recognized as a missing component of development projects which caused intensifying poverty (Karl, 2000). Participatory approach got momentum after the World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD) organized in 1997. WCARRD emphasized on the organization and active participation of rural people in the development programs (UN ESCAP, 2009). Local participation is considered as a vitally important factor for rural development projects, since rural people are the only one who knows their own problems better than anyone else. Hence, participation improves ownership, helps with rural people’s knowledge and boosts sustainability of rural development projects. In 1990, after more than four decades of providing foreign aids to developing countries, the assistin g and major donor agencies came up with the issue of benefits and activities in long term after stopping aids fund. They tried to establish local governance to manage resources and ensure long term sustainability (Bossert, 1990; Mohammad, 2010). A project can be sustained when the beneficiaries are involved in the project cycle; they will train throughout the project and would be enabled to work for their community in the future. Agriculture and livestock sector plays a vital role in the rural economy of Afghanistan. According to the World Bank (2012) rural population measured 76.14% where agriculture is the primary activity. Despite of the many challenges rural economy contributes to more than half of the country’s GDP. The three decades of war, turmoil, instability, revolution and social disruption enormously affected rural people in terms of social development and economic growth. Social institutions and economic infrastructures have been destroyed, sources of livelihoods, housing, schools and hospitals were demolished (Rahimi, 2013). After a long time, the government of Afghanistan and International Community in 2002 began some initiatives to reconstruct and stabilize the country through local communities. Zakhilwal and Thomas (2005) suggest that for longer peace and stability, rural participatory policies are needed to include those people who were often excluded from the decision-making before, especially women who have historically been victims of imbalanced development. The Transitional Government of Afghanistan in 2002 has started national programs. One of these programs was National Solidarity Program (NSP) to create, build up and maintain Community Development Councils (CDCs) as effective foundations for local governance and socioeconomic development (NSP-Web, 2014). NSP as a bottom-up program was created in 2003 to develop the ability of Afghan communities to identify, plan, manage and monitor their own development projects (NSP-Web, 2013). Development projects have a crucial role in the local development, since they improve the living standards of local people, empower local people and educate rural communities. Hence, it is important to be sustained which depends on the project selection, project design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Without active participation of local people, it is impossible to achieve this goal (sustainability), which NSP projects couldn’t meet this criterion many projects have failed to produce expected outcomes. This study examines people participation in NSP projects and it explores major obstacles of people participation and likely sustainability of two projects in Sayed Abad district of Wardak province. 1.2. Rationale of the study Since 2001 government have put the issue of local participation in the centre of their policies and much more attention has been paid to rural areas and community participation, to bring people together in order to utilize the local resources, as well as to improve the livelihood of the rural people. In the first couple of years government tried to build capacity at local level in the public sector and civil society but these efforts had light impact. Subsequently, Afghan government jointly with the International Community initiated national programs to cope with poverty, engage directly people in the reconstruction process of the country, empower local people and make them responsible for their own development (Rahimi, 2013). Mostly the process of these programs has been bottom up, which has mainly focused on minorities and underprivileged strata of the community. But it is supposed that in some regions these initiatives have not succeeded to perceive the objectives of community par ticipation and empowerment in the local projects and many times it criticized that minorities, especially women have not been involved in these efforts, and still people are suffering from the elite and power-holders interference in the rural development projects. This study attempts to answer the empirical questions which often asked that whether in the NSP program people meaningfully participated and whether people’s participation incorporated with sustainability of the projects. With this background and empirical questions, the entire study was designed to meet the following objectives: To identify the level of involvement of local people in the National Solidarity Program (NSP) projects in the study area. To explore the barriers and factors that affect community participation in National Solidarity Program (NSP) projects in Sayed Abad district. To examine the sustainability of the NSP projects in the study area. To make recommendations based on the findings of this study. 1.3. Hypothesis In Sayed Abad district of Wardak province, elite power holders, socio-cultural situation and personal relationship caused isolation of minorities, especially in case of participation of women in the National Solidarity Program. Threatened security conditions, lack of substantial information and conflicts among tribes are the biggest challenges for community participation in the National Solidarity Program in Sayed Abad district. Meaningfully Participation of people in National Solidarity program likely lead to sustainability of projects in Sayed Abad district. 1.4. Limitation of the Study The limitations are mainly related to the availability of information and time, difficulties of collecting primary data in rural area of Afghanistan. It is not an easy task because of the threatened security conditions and a high illiteracy rate of the citizens. Some of the limitations are listed below: Lack of time and financial limitation. Security problems in Wardak province. Unwillingness of the respondents to give information due to security problems. Bureaucratic policy in the Ministry of Rehabilitation and Rural Development. Lack of secondary data due to absence of database in the provincial office of NSP. Absence of the officials and members of Community Development Councils (CDCs). 1.5. Organization of the thesis The entire thesis has been organized in five chapters. The first chapter highlights the context of the study, objectives, hypothesis and limitation of the study. Chapter two includes an extended literature review about the history of participation, definition of participation and sustainability, typology of participation, factors influencing participation and sustainability, relationship between participation and sustainability of the projects, social exclusion and inclusion and a short description of NSP. Principle concepts, information about study area, methods and tools used in the analysis are elaborated in the chapter three. Chapter four explores the results and findings in a logical scientific manner to accomplish the objectives and test the hypothesis of the study. Chapter five presents conclusions based on research outcomes and also some recommendations for enhancing the people’s participation in rural development projects and sustainability. In the next chapter the st udy is summarized and finally the sources of research materials, books and research papers related to the present investigation are listed.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Nationalism and the French Revolution

Nationalism and the French Revolution The French Revolution is synonymous with nationalism. In fact, there can be little doubt that the concept of a nationalist revolution was born from the discord that built up in and around the periphery of France during the 1780’s. There was, however, little cohesion or malice aforethought with regards to events that took place after the storming of the Bastille in 1789. Rather than being a planned experiment in nationalism, the French Revolution should instead be interpreted as the result of pent up forces and frustrated political ambitions that had been fermenting in France and throughout Europe for the previous one hundred years. The nationalism of the revolution era was thus rare; a total kind of nationalist ideology that in theory was concerned with furthering the ambitions of ‘la patrie’ (the nation) but which in reality was too dynamic for its own good. The various modes of political office that dominated France over the forthcoming decades were wholly unpre cedented and unable to be contained within the national borders of France alone. As Bouloiseau declares, â€Å"the regime’s intentions were pure, but it lacked the means to put them into practice.†[1] For the purpose of perspective, the following examination of the role that nationalism played in the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars must adopt a chronological approach, attempting first to trace the genesis and subsequent evolution of the nationalist uprising before attempting to draw a definitive conclusion as to why the nature of the revolution was far too complex to be explained in simple ideological terms. First, however, a definition of nationalism within the specific historical context in which it was formed must be ascertained in order to establish a conceptual framework for the remainder of the discussion. Nationalism could not have emerged as a populist form of political ideology without there first having been the introduction of the paradigm of the ‘nation‑state’, which was first institutionalised after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. France, Spain, Prussia, Switzerland, Holland and Sweden all signed treaties during the course of 1648 bringing to an end a variety of international conflicts that had beset the European continent for the previous eighty years. The treaty acknowledged the political legitimacy of states on the European mainland, giving rise in the process to the idea of international relations – the foundation of modern foreign policy. This was an important break with the past where relations between countries had been conducted via the historical continental monarchies and the ‘ancien regime’ that had governed feudal, pre‑industrial Europe for centuries. After 1648 the watershed notion had been implanted which suggested th at the rule of the old continental monarchies was coming to an end and that it would be the nation‑state that would become the determining factor in political affairs in Europe in the future. It is a significant point and one that should be borne in mind throughout the remainder of the discussion: without the Peace of Westphalia there could not have been a nationalist revolution, neither in France or anywhere else. Before it, it is difficult to conceive of nationalism in the modern form that is talked of today. The revolution itself was the result of a century of frustration that had built up around the inability to turn this new concept of the nation‑state into a political reality. For instance, despite the increasing urbanisation and industrialisation of the country the monarchy, nobility, aristocracy and the landowners continued to economically and politically dominate France throughout the opening decades of the eighteenth century. Moreover, as was the case with the last days of the Roman Empire, the behaviour of the traditional elite in France appeared to get more lavish and decadent with each passing year so that, by July 1789, France was absolutely ripe to experience what Marxists would understand as a ‘revolution from below’. The intellectuals and the bourgeoisie were able to use a variety of oratorical and politically inflammatory means of inciting the disaffected French masses into open rebellion at this time. One of these means was nationalism. By constantly c laiming that the monarchy and the nobility were destroying the cultural fabric of France, the leaders of the revolution (bourgeois men such as Maximilian Robespierre) were able to quickly turn a large‑scale riot into a wholesale nationalist revolution. In this sense, the dictatorship of Robespierre and The Terror that took effect from July 1793 to July 1794 should be seen as marking the birth of political modernity. â€Å"Robespierre is not so much the heir of Enlightenment as the product of the new system called Jacobinism, the beginning of modern politics.†[2] Modern politics in this instance is a pseudonym for nationalism, which after the French Revolution became the defining concept in European politics until the end of World War Two and the destruction of the Nazi State in 1945. Indeed, the link between the revolution, nationalism and what the twentieth century would come to understand as fascism must at this point be underscored. Fascism, much like the political dictators of the French Revolution, was only able to come to power via a protracted period of liberal decadence having taken place beforehand. Thus in much the same way as the leaders of the French Revolution right wing fascist leaders used nationalism as a means of highlighting the need to undergo a revolutionary national re‑birth; to attempt to form a phoenix from what they perceived as the ashes of political ineptitude and cultural decadence. â€Å"Fascism is a genus of political ideology whose mythic core in its various permutations is a palingenetic form of populist ultra-nationalism.†[3] The association with fascism is also useful for the way in which it spreads light on how the revolution was unable to be contained with the sovereign national borders of France alone. Like Nazism, nationalism in the context of the French Revolution was a highly unstable ideological solution to a long-term socio‑political problem. The revolution likewise required an external enemy in order to maintain popular support and political legitimacy. Thus, war became the lifeblood of the revolution as, during the course of the 1790’s the leaders of the French Revolution decided that it was no longer enough to have successfully removed from power the former political elite from France; rather, an expansion of the ideology and the means of putting that ideology into practice abroad became the raison d’à ªtre of the regime. â€Å"During the 1790’s the policies pursued by France undoubtedly contributed to mass political mobilisation elsewhere in Europe.†[4] The Napoleonic Wars which followed should be seen as the wars of nationalism which raged across the European continent over the following two decades. Yet there was a tangible sense of a faà §ade appearing whereby the French claimed to be conquering foreign territory in order to transfer the libertarian, enlightened principles of the revolution to lands that had hitherto not been afforded such a valuable political and social insight when in fact the struggles that Napoleon embarked upon across the continent were simply a means of affirming the French nationalists’ belief that they alone were the superior European race. Nowhere is this better illustrated than in the invasion of Russia – again a move that strikes immediate comparisons with Hitler and Nazi Germany. By crossing the Urals and moving into the realms of Russian authority, Napoleon finally discarded the mask of the revolution that he had so far been sporting. In no way could the take over of Russia be seen as anything other than the expression of nationalism over political theory. Russia at the time was still an almost entirely feudal country with no industrialisation to speak of even in the major towns and cities such as St. Petersburg. In addition, there was no sophisticated social class system to speak of which could have proved to be a launch pad for a nationalist revolution taking place in Russia on anything like the same scale that had happened in France. Therefore, the invasion was, in the final analysis, simply due to the will of Napoleon and the nationalistic French to increase the revolutionary empire by overcoming the historical pariah of European politics. Furthermore, just like all the other nationalist leaders who went before and came after him, Napoleon was ultimately proved to be incorrect: nationalism (as manifested by the Tsar and the Russian civilian population) was a force that was just as capable of defending a sovereign border territory as it was of invading and con quering it. Nationalism was clearly a double‑edged sword so far as France and Napoleon were concerned. Essentially, the more land the French army seized, the more the Prussians and the English revelled in their own forms of nationalism which were ignited in the first place by French aggression and sustained by the military ambitions of its dictatorial leader. It remains within the realms of conjecture as to whether or not the British Empire would have been established as rapidly and successfully as it was without the experience of the Napoleonic Wars to both inspire as well as crystallise it. There can be little doubt that the rivalry of the two (which had been meted out in the colonial wars that took place at the same time in North America and Canada) had been the result of a growing sense of tension due to the nascent nationalism of both countries. The French Revolution proved to be the catalyst behind the ultimate expression of this nationalistic warfare between the United Kingdom and France – a potent political concoction whose reside is still very much in evidence in the modern era. Mention at this point must be made of the ideological and philosophical impetus behind the French Revolution in order to manufacture an argument against the idea that the uprising was solely the revolt of nationalistic fervour, which it clearly was not. No seizure of power by a people over a ruling government can be anything other than the combination of a number of highly complex social, cultural, economic and political processes. The build up to the storming of the Bastille has been described as the golden age of Enlightenment – an epoch that oversaw the signing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man in America (July 1776), which signalled the notion of all men being born equal and of human beings having been born with certain rights that must be upheld by national and international law. This vision of liberalism that was sweeping across the early modern western world was not initially a vision that was inspired solely by nationalism. Certainly in the United States it is not possible to speak of a nationalist revolution simply because the thirteen colonies at that time consisted of such a mixture of European immigrants as to make the concept of a nation‑state wholly inadequate for the newly conceived ‘Americans.’ The ideal was, rather, a child of ideological and philosophical writings that emanated predominantly from France via contemporary cultural commentators such as Rousseau an d Voltaire. Again, these ideals did not accentuate the nationalism inherent within Enlightenment. Instead they promulgated an essentially socialist view of a new European order that was designed upon a kind of meritocracy rather than values pertaining to inheritance; where ability was seen as more important than historical connection. â€Å"Anyone who excels in something is always sure to be sought after, opportunities will present themselves and merit will do the rest.†[5] This inexorably socialist, libertarian seed that was first planted in what would become the French Revolution is a vital tool for understanding how nationalism alone cannot be seen as responsible for the events of 1789 and the ensuing wars which followed. The ideological impetus behind the revolution was one that genuinely envisaged a utopian new world order that would not be dictated by corrupt and inadequate people the likes of which had conspired to ruin France since the Middle Ages. The reasons as to why this ideal of a revolution from below turned into a large scale international war is entirely due to the make up of mankind, which is especially inclined to be corrupted by power and to look towards routes of making profit out of the conquer and subjugation of alien races. The point has been made before and it must be made again: this kind of overt nationalism that took control of France during the late eighteen and early nineteenth century was the driving force behind all interc ontinental relations over the following one hundred and fifty years. The French Revolution thus oversaw the beginnings of the reign of realpolitik when military might became the only means of maintaining dominance in a Europe increasingly influenced by cultural intolerance and overt political nationalism. Conclusion â€Å"1789 meant a revolution in ideas, in institutions and individual opportunities, which a quarter of a century of upheaval and war made irreversible.†[6] As the above quotation suggests, the revolution that took France by storm during the final years of the eighteenth century was an extremely potent political process that seemed to gather intensity as the success first of the bourgeois dictatorship of The Terror and second of the military dictatorship of Napoleon cemented the ideals of the Enlightenment upon the European mainland. However, although this process might have began as an expression of egalitarian views pertaining to the freedom of all men, the reality of the revolution was one that spoke volumes about the essentially violent nature of the human condition and the extent of the socio‑political frustrations that had been steadily rising since the middle of the previous century. The greatest beneficiary of this volatile mixture was without doubt nationalism – the only ideological force that was able to hold together the disparate aims and ideals that conspired to make up the French Revolution. Nationalism and th e defence of la patrie were used as rallying cries by the petty bourgeoisie, the revolutionary instigators of the Terror and the imperial machinations of the Napoleonic war machine. To what extent these people were successful in their aims of inciting a nationalist revolution remains an issue that still resides predominantly within the realms of conjecture. There certainly appears to be a major schism between the nationalism that gripped the streets of Paris and the other chief urban centres of France and the relative tranquillity of the rural areas of the country that largely retained their bonds both to the nobility and to the ancien regime in the years that immediately followed the revolution[7]. In the final analysis, the concept of la patrie meant very little to the uneducated proletariat working on the rural estates in the agrarian parts of the country where economic necessity took precedence over revolutionary rhetoric and nationalistic uprisings. This then suggests that nationalism is inexorably tied to industrialisation, urbanisation and the ability to wage mobile industrial warfare across a large land mass. This is exactly what happened one hundred and fifty years after the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo when the distorted vision of nationalism that inspired the French Revolution came back to haunt Europe and the world on an unimaginable scale. BIBLIOGRAPHY Andress, D. (2005) The Terror: Civil War in the French Revolution London: Little, Brown Co. Bouloiseau, M. (1983) (translated by J. Mandelbaum), The Jacobin Republic, 1792‑1794 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Dann, O. and Dinwiddy, J.R. (1988) Nationalism in the Age of the French Revolution London: Continuum Furet, F. (1981) (translated by E. Forster), Interpreting the French Revolution Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Griffin, R. (1991) The Nature of Fascism London: Pinter Merriman, J. (2004) A History of Modern Europe Volume 2: From the French Revolution to the Present London: W.W. Norton Co. Pilbeam, P.M. (1995) Republicanism in Nineteenth Century France, 1814-1871 Basingstoke: Macmillan Rousseau, J-J (1971) (introduction and translated by J.M. Cohen) The Confessions London: Penguin Voltaire (1964) (introduction and translated by J. Butt) Zandig London: Penguin Zeldin, T. (1980) France 1848-1945: Intellect and Pride Oxford: Oxford University Press Selected Articles Biddis, M. (October 1994) Nationalism and the Moulding of Europe, in, Journal of the Historical Association, Volume 79, No. 257 London: Blackwell Footnotes [1] Bouloiseau, M. (1983) (translated by J. Mandelbaum), The Jacobin Republic, 1792‑1794 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.227‑8 [2] Furet, F. (1981) (translated by E. Forster), Interpreting the French Revolution Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.204 [3] Griffin, R. (1991) The Nature of Fascism London: Pinter, p.26 [4] Biddis, M. (October 1994) Nationalism and the Moulding of Europe, in, Journal of the Historical Association, Volume 79, No. 257 London: Blackwell, p.416 [5] Rousseau, J-J (1971) (introduction and translated by J.M. Cohen), The Confessions London: Penguin, p.271 [6] Pilbeam, P.M. (1995) Republicanism in Nineteenth Century France, 1814-1871 Basingstoke: Macmillan, p.267 [7] Zeldin, T. (1980) France 1848-1945: Intellect and Pride Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.2-5