Tuesday, December 31, 2019

Tragedy And The Common Man By Arthur Miller - 2260 Words

In his essay â€Å"Tragedy and the Common Man† Arthur Miller redefines the genre of tragedy and the tragic hero. Miller defines a tragedy as a person struggling against an injustice in the world around him to, which he responds forcefully. Miller states that the â€Å"wound from which the inevitable events spiral is the wound of indignity, and its dominant force is indignation† (144). The wound originates from the injustice in the environment, but it is perceived by the character as an â€Å"indignation† or other forms of outrage. Ultimately, the struggle of the character leads to that character’s downfall, and also reveals the nature of injustice as being insurmountable by the individual. Miller writes that the character’s â€Å"destruction in the attempt [to evaluate himself justly] posits a wrong or an evil in his environment† (145). Therefore, Miller idea of tragedy stems not from the flaws within the character, but from the flaws within the environment in which he or she lives that the character rails against, but is never able to overcome. Tragic heroes, according to Miller, actively and entirely commits themselves in a hopeless attempt to attain or regain their personal dignity. Miller states, â€Å"the tragic feeling is evoked in us when we are in the presence of a character who is ready to lay down his life, if need be, to secure one thing--his sense of personal dignity† (144). This statement emphasizes the absence of â€Å"personal dignity† that the character seeks to gain or regain, and itShow MoreRelatedTragedy And The Common Man By Arthur Miller1675 Words   |  7 PagesIn Arthur Miller’s Essay entitled â€Å"Tragedy and the Common Man,† the author states, â€Å"I believe that the common man is as apt a subject for tragedy in his highest sense as kings were.† (Miller 14) The author deems that each individual had tragedies particularly the common man who dealt with it in his lifetime. He contends that tragedy possibly will also depict ordinary people in domestic surroundings. M iller had a new view of tragedy in which he saw tragic experience as impartial of widespread ethicalRead MoreTragedy and Common Man by Arthur Miller1559 Words   |  7 PagesTragedy and the Common Man by Arthur Miller In this age few tragedies are written. It has often been held that the lack is due to a paucity of heroes among us, or else that modern man has had the blood drawn out of his organs of belief by the skepticism of science, and the heroic attack on life cannot feed on an attitude of reserve and circumspection. For one reason or another, we are often held to be below tragedy-or tragedy above us. The inevitable conclusion is, of course, that the tragic modeRead MoreQuest For Literary Form : The Greeks Believed That The Tragedy1742 Words   |  7 PagesGreeks believed that the tragedy was the greatest form of drama, and Aristotle’s concept of tragedy followed this belief. In the modern times, there has been a change in this view with various authors abandoning the classical form to follow more liberal forms of literacy. (Kennedy Gioia, Pp. 1203) Aristotle s Concept of Tragedy The analysis of Aristotle on tragedy formed the guideline for later poets in the Western civilization. Aristotle defined tragedy as â€Å"the simulation ofRead MoreTragedy and the Common Man1191 Words   |  5 PagesArticle â€Å"Tragedy and the Common Man† In Arthur Miller’s essay â€Å"Tragedy and the Common Man,† Miller mentions tragedy as man’s struggle to gain his â€Å"rightful† position in his society, and whoever that character may be—king or common man—that character is eventually brought down by his or her tragic flaws and that’s what makes that character a tragic hero. In the past, there have been many tragic heroes which can relate to Arthur Miller’s essay â€Å"Tragedy and the Common Man,† in bothRead MoreWilly Loman, the Modern Hero in Arthur Millers Death of a Salesman1739 Words   |  7 Pages In Arthur Miller’s essay â€Å"Tragedy and the Common Man†, a picture is painted of a â€Å"flaw-full† man, known as the modern hero of tragedies. Miller describes what characteristics the modern tragic hero possesses and how he differs from the heroes depicted by classic Greek playwrights such as Sophocles and Aristotle. In order to understand how drastically the modern hero has evolved, one must first understand the basic characteristics that the heroes created by Sophocles and Aristotle encompass. TheRead MoreExamples Of Everyday Tragedy732 Words   |  3 PagesEveryday Tragedy When a person thinks of tragedy the thing that flows to mind is death and destruction. Even though this way of thinking is valid, there are several ways to analyze the concept of tragedy. Tragedy is when one suffers an unexpected punishment that has merged together through ones actions. Arthur Miller believes that tragedy can happen to any type of person if youre rich or if youre poor, no matter what, it can happen to all of us. Arthur shows this to us in the book Death of aRead More Analysis of veiwpoints on tragedy Essay864 Words   |  4 PagesAnalysis of veiwpoints on tragedy The question of what defines tragedy has been an issue addressed by several different literary minds since the day of Aristotle, the first person to define tragedy. When Aristotle first defined tragedy he believed tragedy was something reserved for a person of noble stature. He said this person was eventually brought down by a tragic flaw, hence the term tragedy. Robert Silverberg agrees with Aristotle’s views on tragedy, but other authors don’t acceptRead More Death of a Salesman is a Tragedy as Defined in Millers Tragedy and the Common Man1046 Words   |  5 PagesDeath of a Salesman is a Tragedy as Defined in Millers Tragedy and the Common Man In Tragedy and the Common Man, Arthur Miller discusses his definition and criteria for tragedy as they apply to the common man. The criteria and standards proposed by Miller may be used to evaluate his timeless work, Death of A Salesman. The first major standard of tragedy set forth is:   â€Å"...if the exaltation of tragic action were truly a property of the high-bred character alone, it is inconceivable thatRead MoreConventions of Tragedy in A View From The Bridge By Arthur Miller1100 Words   |  5 PagesConventions of Tragedy in A View From The Bridge By Arthur Miller Arthur Miller manipulates his characters and uses literary devices to effectively convey to the audience the trajectory of Eddie Carbone and his flaws of misconduct in the play, A View From The Bridge. He uses all the conventions of a modern tragedy adequately to help arouse sympathy, suspense and fear from the audience at significant intervals of the playRead MoreA Survey of Tragedy984 Words   |  4 PagesA Survey of Tragedy A modern tragedy of today and a tragedy of ancient Greece are two very different concepts, but ironically, both are linked by many similarities. In â€Å"Poetics†, Aristotle defines and outlines tragedy for theatre in a way that displays his genius, but raises questions and creates controversy. Aristotle’s famous definition of tragedy states: â€Å"A tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious, and also as having magnitude, complete in itself in language with pleasurable accessories

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Hispanic Ethnicity And The Latino Population - 1370 Words

Introduction Latinos are considered an American community of considerable diversity of culture, race, ethnic, and national origin. It is a community on the forefront of significant demographic change and sociopolitical growth (Appleby, G.A., Colon, E., Hamilton, J., 2011). Latinos in the United States are diverse, and collectively the second largest ethnic minority population in the country (Vigil, 1996). Culture represents a way of life that binds Latinos together through their language, values, beliefs, and practices that are considered appropriate and desirable within the Latino population. Their population is an aggregation of several subgroups such as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central and South American and Dominicans. It has†¦show more content†¦The Latino population is on the average eight years younger than that of Whites and two years than African Americans (Appleby, G.A., Colon, E., Hamilton, J., 2011). B. Strengths and Resources Family life is important to Latino family interests are valued over individual well-being (Latinos, 2014). The structure of the Latino family tends to be patriarchal with great power and responsibility vested in the male head of household. The family is viewed as the focal point of mutual aid in the Latino community, based on the cultural norm of personalismo and the non-familial organizations are not generally trusted. Latinos depend more on the family for services, emotional support and advice than they do professionals. In the Latino culture, la familia (the family) and interdependence among its members are highly valued (Appleby, G.A., Colon, E., Hamilton, J., 2011). C. Life Experiences Human behavior is affected both by genetic inheritance and by experience. The ways in which people develop are shaped by social experience and circumstances within the context of their inherited genetic potential. Each person is born into a social and cultural setting – family, community, social class, language, religion, and eventually develops many social connections. The class into which people are born affects what language, diet, tastes, and interests the will have as children and therefore

Saturday, December 14, 2019

GFI Executive Report Free Essays

Gracie Fay International (GIF) has an art to understand their abilities to record, classify, and summarize their financial, but they are lacking the understanding of their cost accounting systems, product costs for production of took balls, specific job order cost for special order products, and their cost information on the two models of pitching machines, which all of these areas are not being Justify on how Important cost accounting is too growing company Like GIF. These four areas will be explored In more detail in order to shed light on each activity, which will ensure that GIF Is asking a profit, correct decisions, and recognizes any corrections that need to me made. GIF must understand that cost accounting Is an Important function In their corporate strategy. We will write a custom essay sample on GFI Executive Report or any similar topic only for you Order Now Cost accounting Is known as managerial, or management accounting, which It provides economic, and financial Information In making decision for the company. Its mall objective is to provide information In ladling management to plan, direct, and control operations. It also improves these controls by supplying data on the cost incurred to each manufacturing department. The skill sets that I have will enhance GIF on many levels, and they include; full knowledge of purchasing policies, processes, and procedures, balance and reconcile records, able to research and resolve unbalance issues, have strong technical skills, solid decision making skills, and the ability to exercise independent Judgment, prioritize and plan, work activities efficiently to meet deadlines, work as a team or independently, detailed oriented, excellent oral and written communication skills, and strong mathematical skills. Cost management is used to plan, and control the company’s decision process, in which reduce cost would be lower, and product value would increase for customers. It provides information that ensures management makes short, and long term decisions no matter what kinds of materials are being used, changes in plant process, or in product design. Management would make these kind of decision to increase short term profits, and Improve the long term position of the company. There are three cost system that are used for manufacturing operations; Job order cost system, Process cost systems, and Activity based (BBC). Job order Is used to reduce products for specific orders, and It estimates the costs with producing the goods for different Jobs (Atkinson et. Al. 2005 p. 79) Process costing Is often used by companies that operate using continuous processing. This type of system applies the costs of production, labor and support actively as the goods pass through the different process stages. (Atkinson et al, 2005, p. 92-94) BBC has a two stages, the first stage Is cost Is allocated to pools, and the second stage Is the cost pools are allocated to products, or services. (Edmonds et al, 2006, p. 33). These septets include understanding the difference between manufacturing, and non manufacturing costs, computing the cost of manufacturing a product, indemnifying cost behavior when it comes to utilizing cost volume profit relationships, setting prices, budgeting, controls, and capital when it comes to the company’s strategies. Transform raw materials into finished product, and the cost consist of basic materials, and components, labor, and factory overhead in order to complete a finished product. The material, and labor is classified as direct, or indirect to the finished product. To explain direct material, it is taking major components, which can be traced to the finished product. It counts these components carefully, because of the significance to the product, for example take a lawn mower its major components are the engine, wheels, and handle, but the indirect materials is those minor items like screws, nuts, bolts, washers, and lubricants, which is accounted for as factory overhead. Cost accounting also includes direct labor costs, which is all labor costs for specific work performed on products that can be conveniently and economically raced too product unit. Factory overhead is all factory costs that are indirectly related with the finished inventory. When it comes to cost behavior, the costs do not change in total, even when the product numbers increase, or decrease, and is considers to be fixed cost, an example would be rent. Other cost that a factory may incur would be known as non manufacturing cost, which includes selling, administrative, and financing costs that are deducted as expenses from the sales revenues. The manufacturing production process includes, Job shops, batch flows, etc. Which help determine the type of product cost system the company may utilize. It is understood that when making a decision its best to use estimation of costs, but management must have a good idea on how costs behave. There are several methods that management could use; the high low method, or the least square regression. When a company is setting prices there is one approach to think about, that would be the cost plus pricing. Then the company can apply the proper markup given the competitive market conditions, and other factors, like target selling price. In equines a budget aids in planning, and controlling of the company. Master budgets consist of operating, and financial budgets. The operating budget forecast sales, while financial budget is based on data from income statement. Let not forget that budgetary control is needed, this process compares actual operating results, and to identify problem areas in order to correct the issues. In conclusion cost accounting provides products, or services that greatly benefit Gaffs management team in many areas such as, competition, downsizing, or expanding globally, therefore GIF must understand that without cost accounting in their business plan the company may not be able to expand their activities, remain profitable or improve its competitive standing. Art 2 Product Cost Variable Fixed Direct Electricity x Real Estate Taxes x Indirect Leather to tie wood together Manufacturing Labor Water x Lubricants for Machinery Equipment depreciation Electricity, and Water- is manufacturing, variable cost, because the business depends on electricity, and when sales have increased it creates more demand for more product. Real Esta te Taxes, and Equipment depreciation- is fixed, because it remains instant within a relevant range of volume, or activity. How to cite GFI Executive Report, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

E-Voting System In Bangladesh

Question: Describe about the Problems Faced By E-Voting System In Bangladesh Due To Lack Of Proper Management? Answers: Introduction Electronic Voting System is one of the emerging technological developments that can be viewed in most part of the world. It has been seen that E-voting system is adopted by the western country that removes the problem of corruption and fraud in voting. In recent years Bangladesh has also implemented the E-voting system to reduce the problems faced in the last elections. But the system itself is not the only solution to the problems faced by the government and the voting system of the country. The management team also needs to execute the plans for implementing the e-voting system in the country. This report is based on analyzing the problems faced by the management teams for implementing a proper E-Voting system in Bangladesh. Project Background IT projects highly depends on management team for implementing the entire system. Management and administrative department is the main people on whom the entire project depends on. The entire project depends on the capabilities of the management people. It is important to see how the management team takes care of the project for proper execution of the plans. As Bangladesh government wants a fare voting system, it is important for the government to check the registration system for voters. In a democratic country it is important to consider the public voting for determining the government of the country (Bangladesh voting project nears completion, 2008). But the government fails to meet the criteria of fare voting because the voting system in Bangladesh is earlier days were based totally on paper works and no electronic evidence were kept on who is voting and from were. To execute the problems the EVM system implemented by Bangladesh government but still there are some issues that ne eds to be considered while implementing the E-Voting system by the management team. This project talks about the problems that the E-voting system faces due to lack of proper administration and management techniques (Sarker and Uddin, 2014). Identify One Issue The most important problem that needs to be considered is that each person votes single time to exclude the problem of corruption and fraud through the E-voting system. This is the problem of communication that occurs among the members of the Voting committee that uses the system. It is the major issue that the government faces to stop fraudulent in e-voting system (Faisal, Hossain and Bhuiyen, 2014). The major problem that the management team faces or the technique that the government lacks in implementing a proper E-voting system is the communication technique. It is the main failure of the government. It is the most important problem issue that needs to be considered while implementing proper IT technique of voting. The government needs to develop a system that will help to know whether a person has voted or not, whether the citizen is voting on his behalf or whether or not the person has casted his or her own vote. A proper communication plan is the most important aspect that mus t be looked after while implementing an IT project plan. Without a proper communicational strategy a project cannot be developed and implemented to meet the requirement of the users. Research Question The major research question around which the entire hypothesis revolves is how communicational problems affect the E-voting System in Bangladesh? Some other questions that also needed to be answered in this research are: Is the communication strategy major failure for poor voting system in Bangladesh? What problems the system actually faces? How can these problems overcome? Research Objectives The hypothesis is done on the problems faced by the voting committee in properly using the EVM technology to remove the fraud in vote casting in Bangladesh. The main objective of the research is to know the loop holes of the voting committee in their communicational strategy and find proper solution for excluding the problems (Nasreen, 2003). It is important for the management to know the exact problems that can occur with the system and find out proper solution for the problems. Here, the proposal deals with the issue that the report is going to discuss as a whole. As it is known that the voting committee is not able to properly register the voters and check their identity while conducting the votes because all this procedures are done manually there occurs the problem of communication among the voting committee members. Though the records are kept electronically but the inputs are done manually while conducting votes (Schuessler, 1969). The research studies the problems faced in th e E-Voting system in Bangladesh due to the lack of proper communication among the members of the voting committee, and how can this problems be solved. Strategy of Research For conducting a research it is important to make plans and develop strategy to collect data and information on the given topic (Davenport, 1967). In this research two different methods will be used to collect data and information. The first and foremost strategy that is followed in this research is survey that is conducted with the help of studying internet sources (Sarker and Islam, 2013). To complete the research work a survey will be conducted with the help of questionnaires that will be asked to common people through social networking sites. The questions will contains the detail of the situations faced in the e-voting system of Bangladesh and people will be asked that what they think about the communication problem faced by the voting committee for implementing the e-voting system in the country. The second method used in this report is the observation method through which the data collected is observed to understand the problems faced in the E-voting system in Bangladesh. By u sing the observation strategy the data collected from the internet sources are analyzed to provide an outcome of the research in the forms of results and findings of the research. How will you collect and Analysis the Data Data collection is one of the major and the most difficult task for any researcher. Data is collected in two different ways. In the first way the data is collected from the primary sources through direct interviews and questionnaires. In the second method the data is collected from the secondary sources like, internets, books, journals etc. In this research the primary as well as secondary method of data collection is used. People have been as questions about the communication problem of the management in implementing the e-voting system and some data is being collected by studying several articles and journals that provides information about the e-voting system in Bangladesh and what problems are generally faced by the voting committee of Bangladesh in conducting a fare voting in the country that is fraud and corruption free (Haque, Azad and Rahman, 2010). Several journals have been studied and data collected are sampled out to provide proper analysis on the provided topic. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Here in this research several types of statistical analysis have been made to find out the results of the analysis. Descriptive statistics method is a way of statistical analysis in which proper information is provided about the conditions discussed in the research. The descriptive method helps to provide statistical analysis of the group of data in the form of standard deviation and measures of central tendency. It helps to analyze the dependency and independency of the data and variables collected in conducting the research study (Denham, 1979). It helps to provide proper information on the given data and variables that helps the researcher to provide ample information on the given study. It does not provide any boundation on the data and variable populations that has been used in the research to provide the analysis. The population can be large or small depending on the research topic that has been used. But in this research the data collected is sampled with the help of probabili stic and non-probabilistic sampling method depending on the importance of the data to analyze the situation on the given topic (International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory Practice, 2012). Therefore in this research the inferential statistical method of analysis has been used to conduct the research analysis. Data Collection, Analysis and Interpretation Research study or hypothesis depends on proper collection of data and analysis of data. It is the most important part of hypothesis. This is because the entire outcome of the research depends on the data collected and how the researcher analysis the collected data. This section is divided into three sub-sections that will make the procedure easier to understand. Data Collection In this research the data is collected by secondary method by using the internet sources and social networking sites. People have been asked questions about the major issue faced by the e-voting system in Bangladesh that is the communication problem among the members of the voting committee for proper to know what people think about the system and the communicational strategy of the committee about implementing the e-voting system. Data collected are arranged with the help of spreadsheet and converted into variables for proper analysis (Goel and Blair, 1979).The data are converted into variables by proper sampling method. As it is know that the data collection involves a huge population therefore a proper data sampling technique has been used to arrange the variables for analysis. It is important for the researcher to identify proper data and describe it and summarize the data appropriately for representing the research report properly. Data Analysis After the collection of the data comes the analysis. It is important for the researcher to understand the relationship between the variables and make a comparative study with the different variables collected for analysis (Richter and Blair, 1980). Through a proper comparative study the researcher can identify the differences between the variables and forecast the outcome of the studies. For doing this statistical analysis have been made with the collected data to know the measures of the central tendencies, standard deviation and correlation among the variables. For doing the statistical analysis the SPSS analytical tool can be used that helps to find the dependency and independency of the variables. Hence, for completing the hypothesis and forecasting the outcomes, descriptive analysis has been done in this report. Data Interpretation As it is know that interpretation is the process of adding meaning to the variables and data presented in the report. Numbers dont speak and provides the outcome of the report. It is important to interpret the data and variables represented in the research report with the help of words, graphs and tables. In the research study the data and variables will be represented with the help of descriptive analysis and proper graphs and tables will be presented to support the data and variables (Goel and Blair, 1979).This graphs and explanations help to interpret the findings of the research study. The interpretation of the data helps to provide outcomes and provides the learning of the research. The interpreted data is used to provide proper recommendation to the management team or the voting committee to solve the problems of communication for proper implementation of the e-voting system in Bangladesh to remove the fraudulent in the voting system. Literature Review Communicational Problems Affect the E-voting System For successful completion of a specific project it is always needed to analyze the problem related to the project and try to find the relative answers according to solve the problems. In this project it has been seen that the communication among the people in Bangladesh proves to be a vital issue for E-voting system (Sarker and Uddin, 2014). As voting was done in the traditional way in the said country therefore to try a new voting system will be very tough at first. To start the E-voting system first of all people have been needed to make understand about the whole procedure. Also, a large number of manpower is also needed to complete the work (Richter, 1980). However here comes the main issue of communication. In Bangladesh most of the people are living in village areas and therefore to reach them in any situations proves very much demanding at times. Also, the literacy rate here in Bangladesh is very low (Voting Agreement or Voting Trust? A Quandary for Corporate Shareholders: Cor porations. Voting Trusts. Intercorporate Voting Agreement, 1958). The application of global internet is limited in urban sectors of Bangladesh while the rural people are very much below poverty level. So, the issue of communication becomes one of the hardest problems to face to apply E-voting in the country. Additionally, people are not so much interested here to the political issue as they are mostly unaware of the politics due to rural systems (Green-Armytage, 2014). The countryside people earns their living mainly by farming and fishing. Therefore it will be very hard to start the process. Also the national language of the country being Bengali the people here are mostly known this language only (Sarker and Islam, 2013). So, for the purpose of the cause one have to employ more and more Bengali knowing people by providing them enough training and support. In the past years here in Bangladesh the voting percentage is very low and due to the ignorance and mostly for the communicatio n gaps people here are not able to vote for the cause of the country. The area of voting always becomes a critical part for the country as no possible measures can help to improve the percentage of voting (Leech and Leech, n.d.). Not only the communicational problem is affecting the issues but also there are several more problems yet to be analyzed and to be solved. Since the independence of the country Bangladesh is a very poor country. The country has to face floods like natural calamities and that also does not help the cause. No specific industrial model is set up in the country (Goel and Blair, 1979). The civilians are therefore have to get the living mainly by farming and fishing in the rural areas. Therefore the poverty of the country does not help the people to adopt new functions. Besides, the illiteracy count since the independence is a lot higher. That also hinders to implement new computerized system in this country (Richter and Blair, 1980). From the history one can kno w that Bangladesh has been indulged in many civil wars and that is also one of the reasons why the country is so much backward in economic as well as educational sectors. Communication Strategies to Implore the System After all the analysis the first important thing is to help the civilians to be educated and show them the importance of education. Additionally, the improvement of science and technology is needed to be understood by the country people. Internet literacy as well as internet facility has to be arranged to promote E-voting system in the country (Voting Agreement or Voting Trust? A Quandary for Corporate Shareholders: Corporations. Voting Trusts Interoperate Voting Agreement, 1958). Through several campaigns and workshops the importance of the E-voting has to be told to the general people. The duty of voting and the importance of it have to be discussed in front of the crowd. The people must have been encouraged to participate in the political issues and also teach them to understand the E-voting system (Bangladesh voting project nears completion, 2008). The process is hard though but not impossible. It will take time to initiate the E-voting in the country. However if the group can me et the common people and encourage them day to day basis the future can be changed and the system of new voting techniques can be implemented in the country. Of course the time will prove to be a vital factor to implore the total project (Faisal, Hossain and Bhuiyen, 2014). The management has to observe each of these stated factors to make E-voting possible in Bangladesh. New Research Questions After conducting the research some new questions have been developed that will increase the interest of the readers. The new research questions are as follows (Imam, 2012): How can communication strategy be developed to meet up the problems of the E-voting system? Will the new communication strategy be effective in solving the problem? What more technical development can be implemented in the system? How to develop the system in a better way to exclude the communicational problems? Will Bangladesh be able to stop the fraudulent in the voting system of the country by implementing the new system and strategy? Conclusion The research studies about the problems faced by the E-voting system due to the lack of proper communication among the management team of the voting committee and the technical fault of the committee. It has been found that though the committee uses the advance technology of EVM, but still yet it faces some causes of fraud due to corruption and communicational problem in the manual system of the voting committee. The entire report is presented on knowing the actual problem of communication and how can this problem be solved to implement the e-voting system to reduce the occurrence of fraud in the voting system of Bangladesh. The committee must take proper technical steps to exclude the lack of communication in the E-voting system of Bangladesh. References Bangladesh voting project nears completion. (2008).Biometric Technology Today, 16(7-8), p.12. Davenport, H. (1967). Research versus Teaching: A Research Proposal.BioScience, 17(3), pp.156-156. Denham, W. (1979). RESEARCH DESIGN AND RESEARCH PROPOSAL CHECKLISTS.Anthropology News, 20(4), pp.9-11. Faisal, M., Hossain, M. and Bhuiyen, M. (2014). Design and Implementation of Electronic Voting System (EVS).IOSRJEEE, 9(5), pp.56-63. Goel, M. and Blair, H. (1979). Voting, Caste, Community, Society: Explorations in Aggregate Data Analysis in India and Bangladesh.The American Political Science Review, 73(4), p.1171. Green-Armytage, J. (2014). Direct voting and proxy voting.Constitutional Political Economy. Haque, M., Azad, J. and Rahman, J. (2010). Critical Appreciation of Power System in Bangladesh.Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 45(3). Imam, M. (2012). Ethics in the Judiciary System of Bangladesh.Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics, 1(2). International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory Practice. (2012).International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 15(6), p.ebi-ebi. Leech, D. and Leech, R. (n.d.). Voting Power and Voting Blocs.SSRN Journal. Nasreen, B. (2003). Bangladesh / Bangladeshthe present situation, problems and solutions in the legal system related to corruption control.Revue internationale de droit pnal, 74(1), p.469. Richter, W. (1980). Voting, Caste, Community, Society: Explorations in Aggregate Data Analysis in India and Bangladesh. By Harry W. Blair. New Delhi: Young Asia Publications, 1979. xvi, 199 pp. References, Index. $12.00.The Journal of Asian Studies, 39(04), p.850. Sarker, M. and Islam, M. (2013). Management of Sustainable, Credible and Integrated Electronic Voting (E-Voting) System For Bangladesh.Management of Sustainable Development, 5(1). Sarker, M. and Uddin, D. (2014). Electronic Voting Algorithm and Its Algebraic Formation.International Journal of Mathematics Trends and Technology, pp.26-33. Schuessler, K. (1969). Covariance Analysis in Sociological Research.Sociological Methodology, 1, p.219. Voting Agreement or Voting Trust? A Quandary for Corporate Shareholders: Corporations. Voting Trusts. Intercorporate Voting Agreement. (1958).Stanford Law Review, 10(3), p.565.

Friday, November 29, 2019

Differentiation in Practice Essays - Educational Psychology

Differentiation in Practice Differentiation is an important part of education. By providing a differentiated instruction plan each student is allowed to learn at their own pace and instruction is personalized to their specific learning needs by modifying pace, variety, and skills needed within lessons teachers can reach the needs of every student within their classroom (Watson, 2013). Differentiation can make the difference between student understanding and student failure by presenting information in a matter that has meaning and applies to students within their abilities. Within differentiation, many strategies are used to assure student understanding and assure teachers that students are learning. In this paper, I will discuss use of the six-column framework, apply the framework using a concept formation exercise, and address the needs of attention to the learning environment in creating a differentiated classroom. Six-Column Framework Using a six-column framework you are breaking down your problem into six areas and designing alternatives to each of the problems within the framework. Differentiation can be broken down this way by addressing each need within the differentiated learning environment and listing all aspects checking of concepts in practice or that the teacher has understanding of within the list. Within differentiation, a teacher might want to address the learning climate, the learners style of learning, where the learner is at in learning, instructional approaches, how to adjust learning, and curriculum approaches in creating a differentiated classroom. Each section of the spreadsheet would then contain every idea for creating a differentiated environment. It included definitions, goals, and researched understanding and provides a checklist for how to succeed in creating a differentiated classroom showing the ideal pictures of differentiation looks like. This method gives a clear concise image of where to progress in achieving your goals. Despite the benefits, teachers need to realize that the six-column framework is not a linear model and all elements are essential and need continual work (Gregory, 2003). Concept Formation Exercise Using the Round the room brainstorming exercise teachers can further assess the differentiation model of learning by dividing into groups with charts of each of the six frameworks given to one group. In this formation, teachers brainstorm each aspect of the framework one at a time writing down notes about each aspect, then move to the next aspect to brainstorm ideas regarding that aspect. This is done until all aspects are addressed by each of the groups then groups go back to their starting place and prioritize, analyze, and cluster data they previously brainstormed. Each step within the Round the Room Brainstorming is used to analyze what the group knows as well as give individuals ideas of new understandings within the group and to share experiences as a group to gain further understanding of each element. The final step involves removing elements and prioritizing which creates the need for understanding and justification. The method is ideal of problem solving, generating ideas, and fostering learning. Teachers are able to share knowledge of the topics as well as provide insight on what they are already doing and how effective it is working within their classroom (Gregory, 2003). Climate Classroom environment includes a full range of concepts, including the physical setting, the psychological environment, and instructional components related to the characteristics and behaviors of the teacher (Miller The environment not only includes the chairs and layout of the room but also includes the emotions and feeling of teachers, and students when they interact within the environment. Using research, they have determined that classrooms with cooperative groups have a more positive image of fairness in grading, stronger group cohesion, and a higher degree of social support as well as higher achievement scores then classrooms that do not have cooperative group support (Miller Thus, active participation by both students and teaching staff in cooperation to learning has an impact on the degree of learning achieved within the classroom. Climate can be warm and friendly and encourage learning, or it can be harsh and discourage learning. One of the key factors in establishing an effective learning environment that encourages differentiation is knowing your students and shaping a classroom around the needs of every student within the class. Use of multiple intelligences, as well as use of

Monday, November 25, 2019


SCHOOL AS ORGANISATIONS Updated Essay SCHOOL AS ORGANISATIONS Updated Essay Amy Thomas TDA 3.2 Schools as Organisations Understanding how schools are organised in terms of roles and responsibilities. 2.1 School Governors School governors are made up of 10-12 people and in some cases they have up to 20 people are of the governors. They should consist of a parent governor, one staff governor and many others. Some having links to the community. There will also be a appointed local authority governor, they will work closely with all parts of the school the school governors, local authority and the head of the school. Different governors will have different roles and responsibilities and they will all come together to discuss and information and make a full report back to the governing bodies. There main duties are: To set aims and objectives for the school. To adapt new policies for achieving the aims and objectives. To set targets for achieving the aims and objectives. (et-al:18) Senior Management Roles These are to help run the school, they are usually experienced staff in management and their role will be to work close with the head of the school, year groups leaders, foundation stage learner and SENCO. They will meet regularly to discuss and decisions concerns or any other relevant information or the running of the school. All information will then be shared with staff. Other Statutory Roles (e.g. SENCO) on school grounds there will be two SENCOs and they will be managing the provisions for those with special educational needs within the school this includes Ensuring liaison with parents and other professionals in respect of children with special educational needs. Advising and supporting other practitioners in the settings. Ensuring that appropriate IED(individual education plans) are in place. Ensuring that relevant background information about individual children with special educational needs is collected, recorded and updated. (et-al:18) SENCOs will also be responsible for keeping progress on any children with special educational needs Teachers Teacher will be responsible for the up the planning and preparation of lessons in their own class and also to follow the national curriculum, teachers should also be aware of any changes or amendments made to the national curriculum. They also are responsible for their own class and other roles around the school or subjects. To teach pupils according to their educational needs. To assess, record and report on the development, progress and attainment of pupils. To communicate and co-operate with persons or bodies outside the school. To communicate and consult with parents of the pupils. Usually to be responsible for managing an area of the curriculum, such as Geography, as included in the job description. Support Staff Roles The number of support staff as rose drastically in recent years the DFE's statistical first release in May 2010 shows the total number of teaching assistants across all LA maintained schools in England was 79,000 in 2000 and rose to 181,600 in 2009(source DFE:May 2010) (et-al:19) The types of support staff may be: After school/breakfast club Extended school staff Office or admin duties Teaching assistants Individual support assistants for SEN children Learning mentors and parent support workers Explain the roles of external professionals who may work with schools (e.g.) Educational Psychologist. 2.2 The school should have a SENCO who will work along side the Educational Psychologist, they will be allocated by the Special Educational

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Effectiveness of the Death Penalty Research Paper

The Effectiveness of the Death Penalty - Research Paper Example CONCLUSION †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 33 INEFFECTIVENESS OF DEATH PENALTY 1. INTRODUCTION Capital punishment, whose legal synonym is the death penalty has been defined as the â€Å"legal authorized killing of a person in punishment for a crime† and as â€Å"the lawful infliction of death as punishment for a crime.† It is the highest form of punishment for crime in legal jurisdictions all over the world. More than 3000 inmates in America are on death row today (Watts, 2010); Stevenson (2001) quoted exactly 3700. In the United States, the support for capital punishment has been used by politicians as a way of showing their stands with regard to crime fighting. Unfortunately, most of these politicians are either ignorant of ineffectiveness of the death penalty in fighting crime or are simply using it as a means of climbing the political ladder. Mandery (2011, p. 100) stated that â€Å"some of the most blatant attempts at political manipulation of the death penalty have occurred on the level of state politics†. Conservative supporters of the death penalty do not want to imagine that capital punishment is not achieving what it was intended to achieve, neither do they want to look at the practical benefits of getting rid of the death penalty. This paper will explore the said facets of ineffectiveness of death penalty. At the moment, the United States has more people in death row than there ever have been in the history of the country. More states than ever before are legalizing the death penalty even when it has been described as a luxury that counties cannot afford. As highlighted by Dieter (1995) it costs a lot more money to fund the trial and execution of a...The paper tells that in the history of humanity, the death penalty has been the preserve of people suspected of heinous crimes. This is not absolute, as there have been times when suspects were killed for the simplest of offenses. The death penalty existed as far back as 14BC, when the methods of execution included crucifixion, burning, boiling, beheading, public hanging and stoning. With time, fewer offenses warranted the death penalty. The United States has been influenced a lot by its former colonial power with regard to capital punishment. As stated by Latzer & McCord â€Å"the death penalty was transported from England to the American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries†. During the colonial times, capital crimes were many although not many executions were done compared to the current times. The reforms that led to the review of capital punishment in many states started with the abolitionist movement. This led to many states reducing their capital crimes and abolishing the death penalty except for treason and murder. Some states did not follow suit and have still held on to the death penalty to date. In the first decades of the 20th century, there was a lot of debate regarding the death penalty, which led to some states abolishing it completely and some reinstating it in the face of World War I. Methods of execution had increased too, with the introduction of the electric chair and cyanide gas. The second half of the 20th century saw a huge drop in the number of executions thanks to the lack of support for this kind of punishment.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Internal and External Environment of Nestle Research Paper

Internal and External Environment of Nestle - Research Paper Example The paper will address the key issues challenges affecting Nestle Co by conducting an environmental analysis. Organizations face various challenges in their operations both internal and external and to develop the right business strategy, these issues need to be addressed. The report will make use of different environmental models such as SWOT, PEST and Porter’s five forces. After carrying out an analysis, the report will identify a key business challenge and develop a plan for leadership and management as a means of addressing the issue. Conclusions and recommendations and limitations to implementation will be discussed. Nestle Co is the world leading nutrition, health and Wellness Company established in 1867 with its headquarters at Vevey Switzerland. It is a multinational corporation employing over 328,000 people worldwide in over 160 countries. Its sales volume as at the year ended 31 December 2011 amounted to CHF 83,652 and it has 2 billion customers in over 180 countries . It deals with various brands such as chocolates and confectionaries, baby foods, cereals, coffee, dairy products, healthcare nutrition, bottled water, and cereals among others. Overall, the company has over 120 brands. Its mission is to provide customers with products that provide nutrition, health, and wellness. It is committed to increasing the quality of life for all people by ensuring healthy nutrition through a slogan named ‘Good Food, Good Life.’ Its performance is driven by its capacity for innovation and renovation. It has a flat and flexible organizational structure with few management levels and a broad span of control. (Nestle, 2012).It is headed by the CEO, Paul Bulcke who has been in the organization and driven it to where it is since 1998 who according to Raisch & Ferlie (2008) thinks globally and acts locally to penetrate the mature market.  The organization markets its products in almost every country and operates in six geographical locations; Europ e, the Americas, Asia/Oceania/Africa. It operates in the food and beverage industry with main competitors being PepsiCo, Unilever, Kraft, Procter & Gamble, among others. Nestle is a world leader of nutrition, health and wellness products. Its success is made possible by frequent innovation and renovation and the use of environmentally sustainable practices. The CEO is committed to ensuring the customers get quality of life through brand and product diversification and additional nutrition. The company operates in a very competitive environment with major competitors being P&G, Unilever, and PepsiCo. It has products in almost all countries and has over 500 brands in six continents; Europe, the Americas, and AOA. All its operations are guided by the corporate business principles and the suppliers have to adhere to this code of conduct. Nestle environment is very complex as the organization operates globally. The possible strengths include; strong brands, corporate brand, its structure , and cost advantage while weaknesses include; barriers to entry, competition, complex structure, and minimal rewards. It has an opportunity to venture into new markets due to its reputation and can also engage in a joint venture to diversify its products. The company is also affected by changing consumer demands hence buyer power. The major challenge that may impact on the effectiveness of the organization is to retain workers in a globally competitive environment using its cost-cutting strategies and still add value for shareholders. The threat of worker turnover due to poor performance management is crucial and should be addressed.

Monday, November 18, 2019

Features Of The Childhood Cognitive Development Assignment

Features Of The Childhood Cognitive Development - Assignment Example Constructivists gain knowledge by operating gadgets to discover their properties. The organization is an inborn tendency to combine and integrate available schemes into coherent systems or bodies of knowledge. Intelligence in Piaget’s theory is a basic life function that enables an organism to adapt to its environment. Assimilation is the process of interpreting new experiences by incorporating them into existing schemes. Schemes are organized patterns of thoughts or actions that one constructs to interpret some aspects of one’s experience (Shaffer and Kipp 215). According to Piaget, adaptation is the condition in which an individual interacts with, embraces and live by his or her socio-physical and cognitive environment. An individual gets used to his or her environmental aspects regardless of their nature. Assimilation and accommodation concepts complement each other. While assimilation allows for embracement of one’s environment, accommodation requires an individual to accept and appreciate whatever the environment brings forth, including other humans and animals (Shaffer and Kipp 224). Piaget defined intelligence as a basic function of life that enables any organism or human to adapt and fit into his or its immediate environment. Most people would refer to the term as humans’ ability to perceive and comprehend information for use in cognitive development; and manage daily lives of a socio-physical environment. Sensorimotor stage is the first major period in Piaget’s stage theory, lasting approximately 2 years from birth. According to Piaget, during this stage children are not yet able to comprehend their world and must entirely rely on others especially their mothers to think on their behalf. Piaget asserts that imitation is the purest example of assimilation.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Development of the World Wide Web

Development of the World Wide Web CERN stands for Centre Europe n de Recherchà © which means the European Organisation for Nuclear Research. After the 2nd World War, many international organisations were evolving during which Raoul Dautry, Pierre Auger and Lew Kowarski from France, Edoardo Amaldi from Italy and Niels Bohr from Denmark intended to build an Atomic Physics Laboratory. After many intergovernal meeting and conventions, on 29 September 1954, it came formally in existence. CERNs main area is high energy physics researches. It provides particle accelerators for nuclear physics experiments. After 1954, there has been numerous researches and evolvements at CERN and is continuing its contribution to science and technology. The main aim of CERN is, Research: Solving the mysteries of the Universe Technology: Developing new technologies. Collaborating: Uniting the nations through science. Education: Providing trainings and research platforms for future scientists. (CERN, 2008) 2. WWW In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist in CERN wrote a proposal to develop a distributed information system for the laboratory. His boss commented the idea to be vague but exciting. After those words the way information was transmitted revolutionised. By 1990, Tim had defined the Webs basic concepts of URL, HTTP and HTML and also wrote the first browser http://info.cern.ch and server software. The WWW was born. (CERN, 2008) 3. Development of WWW After the successful operation on the multi-platform computer network at the CERN laboratories in August 1991 CERN files alt.hypertext was made accessible to the public. During the time all the coded programmes were stored in a computer in CERN called the Web Server because it interconnects with the HTML documents. There was only one web server located at CERN.Gradually after that www began to spread throughout the world specially universities and research labs. YEAR WEB SERVER 1991 1 1992 50 1999 720,000 2001 24 million+ 2010 240 million+ Source: http://www.netcraft.co.uk/survey During 1993, Marc Andreessen, University student at the University of Illinois led a team that developed the Graphical User Interface (GUI) browser called Mosaic. Later, Mosaic was released for Windows and Macintosh platforms to install it.Popularity of this Graphical browser that made people without computer awareness possible to use www by navigating and pointing. (Gribble C, 2009) 4. Internet The internet is a global system of interconnected computers, having ability to provide transparent, self-organising, interoperability among large numbers of diverse networks, host computer and application. (Dimensioning the internet, 1998) 5. Internet History The idea of developing a global network was thought by three pioneers and a conference where they developed a concept of publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks around the world to share the information. Among these pioneers, Vannevar Bush gave an idea of potential uses of information technology through his library system. Norbert Wiener invented the Cybernetics which inspired many developers to work on the possibilities from the IT and Marshall McLuhan made the whole concept of interconnected computer popular. Finally the conference of Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence in 1956 approved the concept and realised the stride improvement of technology. In 1957 the first satellite, Sputnik I was launched by the Soviet Union. This satellite could affect US by the space based nuclear attack. Therefore to stop this US government was forced to create an agency that mandates this kind of foreign attack. As a result US formed Advance Research Project Agency (ARPA).This organisation was primarily created to help defend US against the attack through constant effective communication.JCR Licklider, head of Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) based within the ARPA focused on the benefits of a nationwide communication network. During the process he hired Lawrence Roberts to implement in his vision. Lawrence Roberts led to the development of the network. After few years a special computer called an Interface Message Processor was developed to comprehend the design and in October 1969, network called ARPANET was up and running which was later called CSNET.This network then connected all the universities in America and was later also connected to the EUNet.This was the European network to connect the research facilities in Europe. After the Internet went global, US government had to transfer the management to an independent authority in 1995. (Website 1, Ruthfield S 1995) 6. Internet: Its Uses Internet has made the world into a global village. It uses has been tremendously grown since its introduction. With millions of user worldwide posting and publishing information, its making more data available, producing more results and interacting more easily. Information Internet and www is sometime misinterpreted as a synonym term where as they are totally different. Internet is like hardware of computer which provides software like www to work on it. World Wide Web is a global set of images, documents and other resources logically inter related by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). The internet has enabled individuals and organisation to publish information on such a platform where large number of users can access it.Millions of user posting information worldwide makes internet the biggest database of information and easiest route to use it.Search Engines like Google, Bing, Yahoo, Ask Jeeves has made it even more simpler to look for information in the internet. They are designed to search for information over the internet. By just providing the word for the needed information it searches the entire database in the form of web pages, pictures, videos, or files. Information such as news, product information, maps, weather can be easily retrieved by a single click. Publishing and maintaining web logs (blogs) is also widely in use recently because of the simplicity and zero cost to publish. It is like a diary which can be easily accessed by anyone from anywhere. Users can also build up and take part in discussion forums as per interest and express ones idea as and when and however he/she wishes. Almost every site provides a blog page to make the consumers and internet users provide their honest view easily. So much diverse information online and in within the reach has allowed decentralisation of the information. Retrieval of information from web is certainly quicker, easier and also saves great deal of time compared to encyclopaedias and old fashioned libraries. Communication Communication is another area where the internet is frequently used. It is used in the form of emails, chat, video conference and voice calls. The internet has shown us new ways of communicating and has taken communication to a whole new level. For various reasons such as its low cost, simplicity and accessibility it is getting high attention. Among the all email is an important communication service available. It allows user to send mail electronically with a valid email address to any other valid email address via the internet. It can be read from any computer connected to the internet. User can also attach files like pictures, documents, sound and video with the email. Email has made data transfer and retrieval so much easier. Email gets delivered to the recipient within seconds therefore there is no waiting for the post to get delivered and no worries of losing it. (Folger L, 1997) The next best thing to email is chatting, Chat service allows user to actually have a live conversation with each other or a group. Chat is used in individuals or as a company to pass the message. Many providers like Microsoft and Yahoo provides these features in their website itself for free. (Folger L, 1997) Another way of communicating via the internet is Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP).This technology is used to transfer voice and packet switched networks over the internet. The technology offers ability to transmit more than one telephone call over the same broadband connection. VoIP enables conference calling, call forwarding and many other features which normal telephone has in almost zero cost. So, just with the internet, microphone and web-camera one can call anyone anywhere along with the video call.   (Harris S and Hansen A, ND) Social Networking Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups like small rural communities or a neighbourhood subdivision, if you will. Although social networking is possible in person especially in the workplace, universities and high schools, it is most popular online. This is because unlike most high schools, colleges or workplace, internet is filled with the millions of individuals who are looking to meet other people to get first-hand information and experiences about any number of topics. (Brown K, ND) The internet has enabled entirely new way of interacting with people through social networking. Social sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Bebo provides platform to connect many friends and interact with them which wouldnt have been possible without the internet. It includes visiting other profile pages, commenting or posting feeds, uploading pictures and videos. These kinds of sites have united many friends and groups within the socialisation. However, it definitely arises less face to face interaction and some minor identity thefts. Recently such social sites have also helped raising awareness to the people. E-Shopping The most recent but now a very common and frequent use of the internet is buying and selling over the internet. E-marketing is very popular for many reasons. One good reason is that it takes only a fraction of the cost of advertising through other medium like newspaper and television. Also it has been found that it can reach a far greater consumers based in the internet. E-shopping is also very popular because it can be done sitting in a room. Even if someone needs to sell their products they dont have to open a shop. May be because of this easiness E-shopping is becoming more and more popular. (Folger L, 1997) 7. Future Out of the 6.7 billion human population 1.7 billion of the population is equipped with or has access to internet. This is a growth of 380.3% compared to that of year 2000.The statistics clearly shows the pace of Internets popularity among us people. (Internet World Stats, 2009) Technology is always evolving. The speed which internet developed in the past was so swift it is very likely it will continue its pace in the future.So,what lies in the future for internet and what can users expect? The internet connects world at the present time but is it possible to go further than that? Internet is going off planet.(Dr.Cerf V).A robot is being deployed to North Pole of Mars carrying communication protocol which will eventually lead to inter planetary extension of the internet. Many high-tech innovations such as virtual reality and IP-TV have already become possible in many areas. For example, some medical companies have successfully demonstrated virtual surgery from a virtual flesh. Many websites broadcasts live video through internet protocol (IP) and also allow user to share videos peer to peer (p2p). Most significantly, internet is going mobile in the future. Having said that it is already available in almost all countries with mobile phone facilities but in near future mobile internet will play a major part in the. From heavy machines, internet will be accessible to all possible handhelds and mobile devices. The internet will be accessible anywhere, anytime in a broader band. That means the speed of the net will be very high. For example, time to listen to music will be much higher than to actually download it. We are taking the computer from the two-dimensional desktop metaphor and turning it into a 3D shopping mall model of interaction. (Tom Defanti, ND). This statement clearly suggests where the internet is heading in the future. A 3D interaction will allow Internet users to be in any geographical region without actually getting out of their room. It will allow performing multi task in virtual 3D environment just as in real environment. Besides the development of internet itself, there is also a fear of enslavement by our own creations. Rapid development will eventually lead machines to become intelligent, evolve rapidly and end up treating us like pets. (Saffo P, ND) There is also strong possibility the face interaction will be no more in existence. Even at present, people spend so much time interacting through the internet; there will be time when people will be only interacting with artificially generated stimuli. The development of early forms of networked communication, the telegraph, radio, telephone, television to the internet, communication has come a long way. Prediction made during the 90s is overachieved by 2010.Therefore it wont be surprising if the present prediction comes to reality in future. Ideas like virtual friend, biometric identity and capacity of a machine to download human brain is very daunting. All the developments might be for the benefit of human if the governing body let it remain like that, if not the world will be no more better place to live than it is now.( Janna Quitney Anderson,2006) 8. References IEEE Internet Computing, (1998) Interview: Dan Connolly on the architect of the web, Vol 2,Number 2, March-April, pp. 24-25 IEEE Internet Computing, (1998)Dimensioning the Internet ,Vol 2,Number 2, March-April,p8 Janna Quitney Anderson, (2006) The future of the internet II, Elon University  Lee Rainie Web communication(2008), 1954: foundations for European science[online], CERN,available at; http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/about/History54-en.html ,accessed on 26/03/10 Web communication(2008), 1990: Tim Berners-Lee invents the Web [online], CERN, available at http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/about/History90-en.html ,accessed on 26/03/10 Cheryl Gribble(2009), History of the Web; Beginning at CERN [online],hitmill.com,  available http://www.hitmill.com/internet/web_history.html, accessed on 27/03/10 Web Server Survey,WSS(2010),March 2010 Web Server Survey[online],WSS,available,http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2010/03/17/march_2010_web_server_survey.html accessed on 27/03/10 Steve Crocker(2007),Internet History [online],livinginternet.com ,available   at http://www.livinginternet.com/tindex_i.htm ,   accessed on 28/03/10 Steve Crocker(2007),Internet History, One page Summary [online],livinginternet.com ,available   at http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii_summary.htm ,   accessed on 28/03/10 Harris S and   Hansen A,A public Net[online],National Science Foundation, available at http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/internet/publicnet.htm accessed on 28/03/10 Internet World Stats(2009), Internet Usage Statistic[online],available at   http://www.Internetworldstats.com/stats.htm accessed on 28/03/10 Folger L(1997),Common Uses of Internet[online],available at http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/internet-communication.html accessed on 29/03/2010 http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/uses-of-the-internet.html Folger L(1997),Internet Communication[online],available at http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/internet-communication.html accessed on 29/03/2010 Folger L(1997),What is VoIP?[online],available at http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/VOIP.html accessed on 29/03/2010 Brown K,What is Social Networking?[online].Karen Brown, available at http://www.whatissocialnetworking.com/ accessed on 29/03/2010 Harris S and   Hansen A, Expectation for the Internet of Tomorrow[online],National Science Foundation, available at http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/internet/expectation.htm accessed on 28/03/10 BBC (2006),Internets future in 2020 debated[online],BBC,available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/5370688.stm accessed on 29/03/10

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Blending Face-to-Face and Distance Learning Methods in Adult and Career-Technical Education :: Learning Adult Education Essays

Blending Face-to-Face and Distance Learning Methods in Adult and Career-Technical Education Strengths and Limitations of the Two Methods In theory, the advantages of face-to-face and distance learning methods complement each other (Leung and Tran 2000). In classroom learning, face-to-face contact both in and out of class can help motivate and involve students; active learning can engage students in thinking and interaction through questioning, discussion, small-group presentation, role play, and case studies. In distance learning via ICT, technology makes material available anytime and anywhere; multimedia (e.g., video and audio) can engage multiple brain channels; graphics can help understanding of complex concepts; interactive activities can involve students in dynamic learning through a cycle of questions/answers/feedback; discussion and work groups allow students to evaluate their performance against that of peers. It is important to note, however, that those two sets of complementary advantages are sometimes only theoretical (Cutshall 2002; McKavanagh et al. 2002). In practice, both face-to-face and ICT distance programs often rely on transmissionist, teacher-centered provision of information rather than on interactive, student-centered construction of knowledge; students may end up receiving passively both online and in the classroom. Nevertheless, two themes clearly emerge as the most frequently cited strengths: the personal contact allowed by face-to-face classroom learning and the flexibility allowed by distance learning. An interesting wrinkle is that different distance learning methods can offer different combinations of personal contact and flexibility (Cutshall 2002; McKavanagh et al. 2002; Miller and Webster 1997; Perraton 1991; Zirkle 2002). In synchronous distance methods (e.g., satellite TV, audioconferencing, videoconferencing, live Internet chat), learners and/or instructors are all engaged in the activity at the same time, restricting flexibility; flexibility is further restricted by methods like audioconferencing or videoconferencing in which participants must be at a physical location with necessary technology and hook-ups. However, asynchronous methods allow learners and instructors to participate at different times. Learners can listen to audiotapes, view videotapes, check e-mail, log on to a threaded discussion, or visit webpages anytime; the necessary technology is widely—although not universally—available. The ultimate in flexibility is the "anytime anywhere" availabili ty of a web-based course or course components. It may be surprising that studies examining the connection between learning style and success among distance learning students yield mixed results. Aragon, Johnson, and Shaik (2000) found no correlation between learning style preference and course grade among online adult students in advanced technology education, in spite of differences in learning style preferences between online and face-to-face students enrolled in the program. Blending Face-to-Face and Distance Learning Methods in Adult and Career-Technical Education :: Learning Adult Education Essays Blending Face-to-Face and Distance Learning Methods in Adult and Career-Technical Education Strengths and Limitations of the Two Methods In theory, the advantages of face-to-face and distance learning methods complement each other (Leung and Tran 2000). In classroom learning, face-to-face contact both in and out of class can help motivate and involve students; active learning can engage students in thinking and interaction through questioning, discussion, small-group presentation, role play, and case studies. In distance learning via ICT, technology makes material available anytime and anywhere; multimedia (e.g., video and audio) can engage multiple brain channels; graphics can help understanding of complex concepts; interactive activities can involve students in dynamic learning through a cycle of questions/answers/feedback; discussion and work groups allow students to evaluate their performance against that of peers. It is important to note, however, that those two sets of complementary advantages are sometimes only theoretical (Cutshall 2002; McKavanagh et al. 2002). In practice, both face-to-face and ICT distance programs often rely on transmissionist, teacher-centered provision of information rather than on interactive, student-centered construction of knowledge; students may end up receiving passively both online and in the classroom. Nevertheless, two themes clearly emerge as the most frequently cited strengths: the personal contact allowed by face-to-face classroom learning and the flexibility allowed by distance learning. An interesting wrinkle is that different distance learning methods can offer different combinations of personal contact and flexibility (Cutshall 2002; McKavanagh et al. 2002; Miller and Webster 1997; Perraton 1991; Zirkle 2002). In synchronous distance methods (e.g., satellite TV, audioconferencing, videoconferencing, live Internet chat), learners and/or instructors are all engaged in the activity at the same time, restricting flexibility; flexibility is further restricted by methods like audioconferencing or videoconferencing in which participants must be at a physical location with necessary technology and hook-ups. However, asynchronous methods allow learners and instructors to participate at different times. Learners can listen to audiotapes, view videotapes, check e-mail, log on to a threaded discussion, or visit webpages anytime; the necessary technology is widely—although not universally—available. The ultimate in flexibility is the "anytime anywhere" availabili ty of a web-based course or course components. It may be surprising that studies examining the connection between learning style and success among distance learning students yield mixed results. Aragon, Johnson, and Shaik (2000) found no correlation between learning style preference and course grade among online adult students in advanced technology education, in spite of differences in learning style preferences between online and face-to-face students enrolled in the program.

Monday, November 11, 2019

The problem with plastics

The problem with plastics The problem with plastic is that it doesn't break down and go into the soil it Just sits there for years and years and it's way overused. We use plastic for A LOT of things: packaging, transporting, manufacturing, etc, but do we ever stop to think about what happens to the plastic after we're done using it, or where it ends up? The ‘out of sight, out of mind' saying is perfect when it comes to a lot of environmental issues, especially the issue with plastic. Plastic is made from petroleum, which the earth cannot digest.Instead of plastic biodegrading (breaking down in the soil) it breaks down into smaller and smaller pieces, which causes more harm than Just staying in one piece. For example, if the plastic ends up in the ocean, the plastic pieces will get smaller, and filter feeders will start to eat those pieces. Since filter feeders are on the bottom of the food chain, every organism (birds, fish, marine mammals, etc. ) that feeds on the filter feede rs are also eating plastic. Plastic that ends up in the ocean, kills around one million marine organisms each year!One of the most obvious impacts of plastic bottles is what happens after its been thrown away. According to the Container recycling institute, 86% of plastic water bottles used in the US become garbage that ends up in landfills throughout the country. About 60 million plastic water bottles are used every day in the US. Each year making the plastic water bottles used in the US Takes enough oil and energy to fuel 1 million cars All that energy spent to make Water bottles even more to ship it around the Country

Friday, November 8, 2019

Essay on organisational behaviour

Essay on organisational behaviour Essay on organisational behaviour What is attribution theory? Explain the process the manager will use to form judgements about employee job performance? When we observe people we attempt to explain why they behave a certain ways. Judgements or perceptions are influence by the assumptions we make about a person’s internal state. An attempt to determine whether an individual’s behaviour is internally or externally caused. Internally under persons control Externally behaviour we imagine the situation force the individual to do. Determination depends on 3 factors Distinctiveness – different behaviours displayed in different situations Consensus – everyone facing similar situation responds same way, behaviour shows consensus. Consistency – does the person respond same way over time, behaviour same over time may be judged as caused by internal factors Fundamental attribution error - managers tend to understate the influence of external causes and overstate the influence o internal or personal factors. I.e. Manager may attribute employees poor performance to laziness rather than poor product quality or competitors selling it cheaper. Self-Serving bias – individuals attribute their own successes to internal factors while laying blame for failures on external factors. i.e failure in exam due to not enough time given, not that student didn’t put more effort into study. Shortcuts in judging others Selective perception – selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one’s interests, background, experiences and attitudes. Halo effect – general impression drawn about an individual on basis of single characteristic Contrast effects – evaluation of persons character effected by comparing with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on same characteristic Stereotyping – Judging based on ones perception of the group to which that person belongs. 1. Rational decision making DIADES – model how individuals should behave in order to maximise some outcome. Define the problem Identify the decision criteria

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Medical Ethics in Television Episodes essays

Medical Ethics in Television Episodes essays Medical ethics is one of the most hotly debated topics within modern ethical and moral discussions because it centers on the debate of the preservation of life. No where else is this more evident than in the surgery field, because ethical considerations and hard decisions have to be made on a daily basis. Greys Anatomy, an Emmy Award winning television show surrounding the drama of a surgical ward in Seattle, Washington attempts to accurately capture the ethical and moral dilemmas faced by surgeons on a daily level. The value conflict that this show attempts to exhibit the most within its episodes is the conflict between catering to patients desires and sticking to established professional protocol. The reason that this value debate is embedded in every episode is because it is a real situation that many surgeons face. Through the actions of Meredith Grey and her associates it is evident that the creators of this show value the welfare of patients over the adherence to professio nal standards and protocol. Patient desires and professional protocol is something that consistently overlaps. This occurs in primarily two categories; in the first scenario patients do not understand the full implications of medical decisions and as a result make personal decisions without fully understanding the circumstances. In the second scenario patients understand the implications of the medical decision, but make personal decisions that are exceptions to the existing protocol. These two scenarios exist in abundance within Greys Anatomy. The most poignant scene where this is evidenced is in the episode McVet is the New George. Dr. Addison faces an ethical dilemma, a pregnant woman who is going through her seventh birth asks her to secretly tie her tubes so that she cannot have anymore children. This woman is part of an extremely religious family in which her husband does not believe in the use of contraceptives...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Learning to read and write Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Learning to read and write - Essay Example Fredrick Douglass, in his article â€Å"Learning to Read and write,† gives an account of slavery and how depriving it was to him as well as other slaves under the abolition movement. He takes us through his seven year life under his master and mistress in a captivating manner that clearly brings out the situation many slaves had to encounter. The master was consistently against his slave’s learning while the mistress initially supported and even thought him how to write but later succumbed to the husband’s directives not to have Fredrick literate. But out of a great personal resolve and determination he was able to succeed in learning how to read and write. The mistress was such a kind woman and initially treated Fredrick just the way she supposed a human being should be treated by another. She even could teach him how to read and write but with time gave in to the husband’s directions not to do that. She not only stopped instructing him but also discouraged anyone from instructing him. But Fredrick had been given the inch when the mistress taught him the alphabet and therefore nothing could stop him from taking the ell. He therefore used all strategies available to acquire literacy and understand what certain words like slavery, abolition and others meant. Generally slaves were seen as lesser humans with limited capability in academics and other fields of life. They did not have any constitutional rights hence most of them were even not allowed to marry, those who were married were separated from their families and their children could be taken and sold off any time without their permission. They were used in lotteries, were not allowed to testify in courts and were not entitled to education. Their movements as well as interactions were closely monitored and they had to carry around the pass every time. (Brumley, 1999). The slaves therefore employed different strategies sometimes to reverse their situations. The slave in

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Organizational Communication and Conflict Resolution Essay

Organizational Communication and Conflict Resolution - Essay Example Under this new configuration, corporate communication is defined as "an instrument of management by means of which all consciously used forms of internal and external communication are harmonized as effectively and efficiently as possible to create a favorable basis for relationships with groups upon which the company is dependent (Van Riel, 1995)." This reflects a growing recognition by top management and corporate boardroom that the ability to succeed and rise above the competition depends upon the firm's capability to communicate effectively with its stakeholders, thus making corporate communication an absolute and integral part of top management functions. In line with this thinking, communication managers and departments are now assigned such loftier titles as corporate communications, public affairs or corporate affairs (Fombrum, 1996). It also gave rise to a new corporate communication vocabulary, which consists of words like stakeholders, identity and reputation, among others. Moreover, the work of corporate communication has widened in scope to take place at three dimensions: corporate, market and operational levels. This corporate work involves communicating the organization's mission and vision to its shareholders, employees, customers, etc., while the market-oriented activity explores and implement ways by which the company can compete best in a given market. At the operational level, the communication group is left to manage its own resources, processes and people, a function used to be done on its behalf by the finance department, the engineering section and the human resource department. Relationship to Management How corporate communication has wormed its way into the top rung of the corporate ladder may be seen at Siemens, whose productivity, profitability and corporate image continue to be the envy of its competitors. At Siemens, communication managers oversee a wide range of activities related to management and decision-making, including analysis and research, formulation of communication objectives for the entire organization, and counseling of senior management. The company maintains a corporate communication department that handles advertising, internal communication and media relations. In addition, there is a central corporate messages section that supervises the senior communication professionals responsible for developing and protecting the overall corporate image of Siemens, as well as copywriters for the speeches of senior managers. Such consolidation of communication activities in one or two departments is now commonplace in progressive companies, with the communication practitio ners having the ear of CEOs and senior executive teams, especially on stakeholder and reputation issues (Grunig & Grunig, 1998). The same importance is given to corporate communication by Philips, which keeps a large corporate communication department at its head office in Amsterdam that counsels the CEO and senior managers on

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Franchising & Small Case Study Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Franchising & Small Case Study Analysis - Essay Example In addition, the nature of the business assures customers of different income backgrounds. In this sense, it is possible to have daily substantial sales (Lundahl, 2012). The business has two modes of serving customers. This pertains to internal partaking of food and delivery services. In most instances, customers partake of already prepared fries and artificial juice products. It is vital to note that preparation of natural juices might take different dimensions as concerns the taste and preference of customers. The institutions and businesses provide a significant market to Bucking Bull’s products as the outlet delivers food and drinks to the same. There are two types of delivery services. They are either on short or long term delivery terms. Short term delivery plans depend on daily orders. On the other hand, the business might deliver larger quantities of foods on monthly agreements and contracts with businesses. It is vital to stress that there is substantial competition in Bucking’s venue of conducting business. This relates to the mushrooming of smaller food outlets. The chance for expansion, in the industry, places Bucking at a vulnerable position for succumbing to competitive pressure (Andrews, 2007). This is because new businesses are tactful at satisfying loopholes of existing businesses. However, this is mitigated by creating a customer loyalty of following their recommendations for improvement of business. The first innovation pertains to value addition services and development of a brand that customers would associate with the same. It is vital to note that food outlets usually study the recipes of the best restaurant. In this sense, they would normally make similar foods across a chain of different outlets. Therefore, a brand name establishes a competitive edge that improvement in food services would not accomplish. A brand name is vital in pushing up revenues as more customers are

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Essay Example for Free

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Essay The geriatric assessment is a multidimensional, multidisciplinary diagnostic instrument designed to collect data on the medical, psychosocial and functional capabilities and limitations of elderly patients. Various geriatric practitioners use the information generated to develop treatment and long-term follow-up plans, arrange for primary care and rehabilitative services, organize and facilitate the intricate process of case management, determine long-term care requirements and optimal placement, and make the best use of health care resources. The geriatric assessment differs from a standard medical evaluation in three general ways: (1) it focuses on elderly individuals with complex problems, (2) it emphasizes functional status and quality of life, and (3) it frequently takes advantage of an interdisciplinary team of providers. Whereas the standard medical evaluation works reasonably well in most other populations, it tends to miss some of the most prevalent problems faced by the elder patient. These challenges, often referred to as the Five Is of Geriatrics, include intellectual impairment, immobility, instability, incontinence and iatrogenic disorders. The geriatric assessment effectively addresses these and many other areas of geriatric care that are crucial to the successful treatment and prevention of disease and disability in older people. Performing a comprehensive assessment is an ambitious undertaking. Below is a list of the areas geriatric providers may choose to assess: †¢ Current symptoms and illnesses and their functional impact. †¢ Current medications, their indications and effects. †¢ Relevant past illnesses. †¢ Recent and impending life changes. †¢ Objective measure of overall personal and social functionality. †¢ Current and future living environment and its appropriateness to function and prognosis. †¢ Family situation and availability. †¢ Current caregiver network including its deficiencies and potential. †¢ Objective measure of cognitive status. †¢ Objective assessment of mobility and balance. †¢ Rehabilitative status and prognosis if ill or disabled. †¢ Current emotional health and substance abuse. †¢ Nutritional status and needs. †¢ Disease risk factors, screening status, and health promotion activities. †¢ Services required and received. The primary care physician or community health worker usually initiates an assessment when he or she detects a potential problem. Like any effective medical evaluation, the geriatric assessment needs to be sufficiently flexible in scope and adaptable in content to serve a wide range of patients. A complete geriatric assessment, performed by multiple personnel over many encounters, is best suited for elders with multiple medical problems and significant functional limitations. Ideally, under these circumstances, an interdisciplinary team representing medicine, psychiatry, social work, nutrition, physical and occupational therapy and others performs a detailed assessment, analyzes the information, devises an intervention strategy, initiates treatment, and follows-up on the patients progress. Due to the intricate nature of comprehensive assessments, many teams designate a case-manager or caseworker to coordinate the entire effort. Most assessments take place in medical offices and inpatient units over multiple visits. If at all possible, however, at least one member of the team (rarely the physician) will attempt to visit the patient at home. Despite the problem of low or no reimbursement, the typically high-yield of information from even a single home visit makes it an extremely efficient use of resources. Most geriatric assessments, performed under the constraints of time and money, tend to be less comprehensive and more directed. Although such modifications are best suited to relatively high-functioning elders living in the community, many practitioners find some version of a directed geriatric assessment to be a more realistic tool in a busy practice. Patient-driven assessment instruments are also popular among geriatricians. Asking patients to complete questionnaires and perform specific tasks not  only saves time, but also it provides useful insight into their motivation and cognitive ability. To the extent that patients are unable to complete the assessment themselves, practitioners resort to traditional patient interview techniques that frequently involve input from a family member or other caregiver. During your upcoming site visits, you will perform a directed geriatric assessment (DGA), ideally with the same patient, over two sessions. In the interest of education, most of your DGA instruments are student-driven, rather than patient-driven, and require relatively little information from caregivers who may or may not be available at the time of your visit. We have divided the DGA in two parts, each with three subsections. In Part I, you will perform an expanded medical interview covering the clinical history, nutritional assessment and a social evaluation. In Part II, you will perform neuropsychiatric, physical and functional examinations. What follows is a reproduction of the History and Physical (HP) format that you will use in your Physical Diagnosis II course next semester. Although all geriatric practitioners do not use a standard assessment format (comprehensive or otherwise), most agree on basic content. The comprehensive geriatric assessment (history examination) following the Physical Diagnosis outline covers the most significant content areas of a prototypical geriatric assessment. As you can see, it moves well beyond the standard HP, which is precisely the point. We have designed it to correlate as closely as possible with the history and physical you will be learning later this year. It is to your considerable advantage to review this information before meeting your patients face-to-face on the site visits. The DGA instrument you will use during your encounter immediately follows this section.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Multimedia Elements Computer Science Essay

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Multimedia Elements Computer Science Essay Text is one of the multimedia elements used in the website. Normally we can found it from Internet. Human are using text to communicate with other people. From Internet we can use E-mail to send text message to other people, we also can use share status or share anything you want to share to give your friend or family know what is on your mind. We also can share or give information in forum. There are some examples of Text elements. Source: http://www.friendster.com (share status) Source: http://www.hotmail.com (E-mail) Source: http://forum.lowyat.net (Forum) Audio Audio is one of the multimedia elements. Audio is sound within the acoustic range available to humans. Commonly we can hear many audio from Internet, Radio, MP3, Computer and so more. Now, we can listen music or download music from website, some people were make song and upload to Internet share to everyone, we also can embed favorite music to blog or website. Some of users use voice call to communicate with friend or family. There are some examples of Audio elements. Source: http://www.deezer.com/en (listen and download music) Source: https://www.blogger.com (embed to blog) Source: http://www.skype.com (voice call website) Video Video is one of the multimedia elements. Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing and transmitting of images that show scenes in motion. We can find many video from Internet. Some people make a flash video and upload to website to share with others. We also can use video conference to communicate with friend or family. We can watch movie from online or download the movie. There are some examples of Video elements. Source: http://www.youtube.com (watch video) Source: http://www.moviesdatacenter.com (watch movie) Source: Windows Live Messenger (video conference) Graphic Graphic is one of the multimedia elements. Graphic is a visual representation such as a photo, illustration, 3D or diagram. In the computer, a graphic is a file such as JPEG or GIF, there is graphic formats. Graphic is a picture image in the computer. We can use computer graphic to design a picture, flash or game. We can make more effect in the picture, make a flash video or make a game by using graphic software. Inside the Facebook, we also can see the graphic elements when we play the games. There are some examples of Graphic elements. Adobe Photoshop CS5 Extended (make effect in the picture) Macromedia Flash MX (make flash video) Example of game has 3D graphic elements. Animation Animation is one of the multimedia elements. Animation is a visual technique that provides the illusion of motion by displaying a collection of images in rapid sequence. Each image contains a small change. When the images are viewed rapidly, your eye fills in the details and the illusion of movement is complete. We can make images become Animation by using software. The purpose of Animation is make entertainment to everyone. There are some examples of Animation elements. Example of pictures has Animation elements. QUESTION 2 Advantage and Disadvantage of Text Text is silent communications. One of example in our real life is text messaging, it can send message to each other without other people being able to hear what is being said. It is privacy to exchange messages with each other without fear of other people knowing what you are talking about. The advantage of Text is text messaging is the ability to be able to send a message to someone to ask them to call you later regarding something important. At the same time, it doesnt interrupt them with a phone call. It allows them to respond back to you when it is most convenient to them. The disadvantage of Text is sometimes you dont receive all incoming messages from people. Often a personà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s text messaging box will get so full with incoming and sent text messages. If the inbox gets too full then the person canà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t receive anymore messages unless he or she deletes some of them. Advantage and Disadvantage of Audio Audio is sound within the acoustic range available to human. One of example in our real life is Audio Conference. It can communicate with other people. We can use mobile phone or use Internet to use the audio conference. The advantage of Audio is can combine with other media for example video, computer, MP3. When we are using audio conference, it cans potential for large number of lines on call. The disadvantage is noise can distract participants as well as cut out speaker. Audio is only the sound, it also limited visual stimulation. Advantage and Disadvantage of Video Video is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. One of example in our real life is Video Conference. You can see the people face by video conference. The advantage of Video is when using video conference, it can see anyone you want to see, no matter what time of day it may be for anyone involved. Time differences between states and countries can be overlooked without anyone traveling long distances for the conference. The disadvantages are technical difficulties resulting from one or more of the following: software, hardware and network failure. Although advance testing could often identify technical trouble, the unexpected, spontaneous problem sometimes still arose minutes before or even during a videoconference. Advantage and Disadvantage of Graphic Graphic is a visual representation such as a photo, illustration or diagram. A graphic may contain text, but text by itself is not considered a graphic unless it is done in a stylized fashion. One of example in our real life is Advertisement. Because when we want to do advertise, we need do more creative in the poster. It uses a lot of graphic. The advantage of Graphic is quick way for the audience to visualize what you are saying, some of people more interest in the graphic than talk. The disadvantage of Graphic is it takes a lot of time to make. The cost also expensive, depending on the medium used. Advantage and Disadvantage of Animation Animation is a visual technique that provides the illusion of motion by displaying a collection of images in rapid sequence. One of example in our real life is Flash Video. It uses a lot of animation to make a flash video. Mostly animation is use for entertain people. The advantage of Animation is it more creative and mostly used the images like cartoon; it can make people attract it. The disadvantage of Animation is when makes a flash video and upload to Internet or blogger, when other people want to see this flash video, it take a lot of time to load or buffer.