Friday, November 29, 2019
Differentiation in Practice Differentiation is an important part of education. By providing a differentiated instruction plan each student is allowed to learn at their own pace and instruction is personalized to their specific learning needs by modifying pace, variety, and skills needed within lessons teachers can reach the needs of every student within their classroom (Watson, 2013). Differentiation can make the difference between student understanding and student failure by presenting information in a matter that has meaning and applies to students within their abilities. Within differentiation, many strategies are used to assure student understanding and assure teachers that students are learning. In this paper, I will discuss use of the six-column framework, apply the framework using a concept formation exercise, and address the needs of attention to the learning environment in creating a differentiated classroom. Six-Column Framework Using a six-column framework you are breaking down your problem into six areas and designing alternatives to each of the problems within the framework. Differentiation can be broken down this way by addressing each need within the differentiated learning environment and listing all aspects checking of concepts in practice or that the teacher has understanding of within the list. Within differentiation, a teacher might want to address the learning climate, the learners style of learning, where the learner is at in learning, instructional approaches, how to adjust learning, and curriculum approaches in creating a differentiated classroom. Each section of the spreadsheet would then contain every idea for creating a differentiated environment. It included definitions, goals, and researched understanding and provides a checklist for how to succeed in creating a differentiated classroom showing the ideal pictures of differentiation looks like. This method gives a clear concise image of where to progress in achieving your goals. Despite the benefits, teachers need to realize that the six-column framework is not a linear model and all elements are essential and need continual work (Gregory, 2003). Concept Formation Exercise Using the Round the room brainstorming exercise teachers can further assess the differentiation model of learning by dividing into groups with charts of each of the six frameworks given to one group. In this formation, teachers brainstorm each aspect of the framework one at a time writing down notes about each aspect, then move to the next aspect to brainstorm ideas regarding that aspect. This is done until all aspects are addressed by each of the groups then groups go back to their starting place and prioritize, analyze, and cluster data they previously brainstormed. Each step within the Round the Room Brainstorming is used to analyze what the group knows as well as give individuals ideas of new understandings within the group and to share experiences as a group to gain further understanding of each element. The final step involves removing elements and prioritizing which creates the need for understanding and justification. The method is ideal of problem solving, generating ideas, and fostering learning. Teachers are able to share knowledge of the topics as well as provide insight on what they are already doing and how effective it is working within their classroom (Gregory, 2003). Climate Classroom environment includes a full range of concepts, including the physical setting, the psychological environment, and instructional components related to the characteristics and behaviors of the teacher (Miller The environment not only includes the chairs and layout of the room but also includes the emotions and feeling of teachers, and students when they interact within the environment. Using research, they have determined that classrooms with cooperative groups have a more positive image of fairness in grading, stronger group cohesion, and a higher degree of social support as well as higher achievement scores then classrooms that do not have cooperative group support (Miller Thus, active participation by both students and teaching staff in cooperation to learning has an impact on the degree of learning achieved within the classroom. Climate can be warm and friendly and encourage learning, or it can be harsh and discourage learning. One of the key factors in establishing an effective learning environment that encourages differentiation is knowing your students and shaping a classroom around the needs of every student within the class. Use of multiple intelligences, as well as use of
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 4:04 AM
Monday, November 25, 2019
SCHOOL AS ORGANISATIONS Updated Essay SCHOOL AS ORGANISATIONS Updated Essay Amy Thomas TDA 3.2 Schools as Organisations Understanding how schools are organised in terms of roles and responsibilities. 2.1 School Governors School governors are made up of 10-12 people and in some cases they have up to 20 people are of the governors. They should consist of a parent governor, one staff governor and many others. Some having links to the community. There will also be a appointed local authority governor, they will work closely with all parts of the school the school governors, local authority and the head of the school. Different governors will have different roles and responsibilities and they will all come together to discuss and information and make a full report back to the governing bodies. There main duties are: To set aims and objectives for the school. To adapt new policies for achieving the aims and objectives. To set targets for achieving the aims and objectives. (et-al:18) Senior Management Roles These are to help run the school, they are usually experienced staff in management and their role will be to work close with the head of the school, year groups leaders, foundation stage learner and SENCO. They will meet regularly to discuss and decisions concerns or any other relevant information or the running of the school. All information will then be shared with staff. Other Statutory Roles (e.g. SENCO) on school grounds there will be two SENCOs and they will be managing the provisions for those with special educational needs within the school this includes Ensuring liaison with parents and other professionals in respect of children with special educational needs. Advising and supporting other practitioners in the settings. Ensuring that appropriate IED(individual education plans) are in place. Ensuring that relevant background information about individual children with special educational needs is collected, recorded and updated. (et-al:18) SENCOs will also be responsible for keeping progress on any children with special educational needs Teachers Teacher will be responsible for the up the planning and preparation of lessons in their own class and also to follow the national curriculum, teachers should also be aware of any changes or amendments made to the national curriculum. They also are responsible for their own class and other roles around the school or subjects. To teach pupils according to their educational needs. To assess, record and report on the development, progress and attainment of pupils. To communicate and co-operate with persons or bodies outside the school. To communicate and consult with parents of the pupils. Usually to be responsible for managing an area of the curriculum, such as Geography, as included in the job description. Support Staff Roles The number of support staff as rose drastically in recent years the DFE's statistical first release in May 2010 shows the total number of teaching assistants across all LA maintained schools in England was 79,000 in 2000 and rose to 181,600 in 2009(source DFE:May 2010) (et-al:19) The types of support staff may be: After school/breakfast club Extended school staff Office or admin duties Teaching assistants Individual support assistants for SEN children Learning mentors and parent support workers Explain the roles of external professionals who may work with schools (e.g.) Educational Psychologist. 2.2 The school should have a SENCO who will work along side the Educational Psychologist, they will be allocated by the Special Educational
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 11:38 AM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Effectiveness of the Death Penalty - Research Paper Example CONCLUSION Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 33 INEFFECTIVENESS OF DEATH PENALTY 1. INTRODUCTION Capital punishment, whose legal synonym is the death penalty has been defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"legal authorized killing of a person in punishment for a crimeÃ¢â¬ and as Ã¢â¬Å"the lawful infliction of death as punishment for a crime.Ã¢â¬ It is the highest form of punishment for crime in legal jurisdictions all over the world. More than 3000 inmates in America are on death row today (Watts, 2010); Stevenson (2001) quoted exactly 3700. In the United States, the support for capital punishment has been used by politicians as a way of showing their stands with regard to crime fighting. Unfortunately, most of these politicians are either ignorant of ineffectiveness of the death penalty in fighting crime or are simply using it as a means of climbing the political ladder. Mandery (2011, p. 100) stated that Ã¢â¬Å"some of the most blatant attempts at political manipulation of the death penalty have occurred on the level of state politicsÃ¢â¬ . Conservative supporters of the death penalty do not want to imagine that capital punishment is not achieving what it was intended to achieve, neither do they want to look at the practical benefits of getting rid of the death penalty. This paper will explore the said facets of ineffectiveness of death penalty. At the moment, the United States has more people in death row than there ever have been in the history of the country. More states than ever before are legalizing the death penalty even when it has been described as a luxury that counties cannot afford. As highlighted by Dieter (1995) it costs a lot more money to fund the trial and execution of a...The paper tells that in the history of humanity, the death penalty has been the preserve of people suspected of heinous crimes. This is not absolute, as there have been times when suspects were killed for the simplest of offenses. The death penalty existed as far back as 14BC, when the methods of execution included crucifixion, burning, boiling, beheading, public hanging and stoning. With time, fewer offenses warranted the death penalty. The United States has been influenced a lot by its former colonial power with regard to capital punishment. As stated by Latzer & McCord Ã¢â¬Å"the death penalty was transported from England to the American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuriesÃ¢â¬ . During the colonial times, capital crimes were many although not many executions were done compared to the current times. The reforms that led to the review of capital punishment in many states started with the abolitionist movement. This led to many states reducing their capital crimes and abolishing the death penalty except for treason and murder. Some states did not follow suit and have still held on to the death penalty to date. In the first decades of the 20th century, there was a lot of debate regarding the death penalty, which led to some states abolishing it completely and some reinstating it in the face of World War I. Methods of execution had increased too, with the introduction of the electric chair and cyanide gas. The second half of the 20th century saw a huge drop in the number of executions thanks to the lack of support for this kind of punishment.
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 7:02 PM
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Internal and External Environment of Nestle - Research Paper Example The paper will address the key issues challenges affecting Nestle Co by conducting an environmental analysis. Organizations face various challenges in their operations both internal and external and to develop the right business strategy, these issues need to be addressed. The report will make use of different environmental models such as SWOT, PEST and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces. After carrying out an analysis, the report will identify a key business challenge and develop a plan for leadership and management as a means of addressing the issue. Conclusions and recommendations and limitations to implementation will be discussed. Nestle Co is the world leading nutrition, health and Wellness Company established in 1867 with its headquarters at Vevey Switzerland. It is a multinational corporation employing over 328,000 people worldwide in over 160 countries. Its sales volume as at the year ended 31 December 2011 amounted to CHF 83,652 and it has 2 billion customers in over 180 countries . It deals with various brands such as chocolates and confectionaries, baby foods, cereals, coffee, dairy products, healthcare nutrition, bottled water, and cereals among others. Overall, the company has over 120 brands. Its mission is to provide customers with products that provide nutrition, health, and wellness. It is committed to increasing the quality of life for all people by ensuring healthy nutrition through a slogan named Ã¢â¬ËGood Food, Good Life.Ã¢â¬â¢ Its performance is driven by its capacity for innovation and renovation. It has a flat and flexible organizational structure with few management levels and a broad span of control. (Nestle, 2012).It is headed by the CEO, Paul Bulcke who has been in the organization and driven it to where it is since 1998 who according to Raisch & Ferlie (2008) thinks globally and acts locally to penetrate the mature market.Ã The organization markets its products in almost every country and operates in six geographical locations; Europ e, the Americas, Asia/Oceania/Africa. It operates in the food and beverage industry with main competitors being PepsiCo, Unilever, Kraft, Procter & Gamble, among others. Nestle is a world leader of nutrition, health and wellness products. Its success is made possible by frequent innovation and renovation and the use of environmentally sustainable practices. The CEO is committed to ensuring the customers get quality of life through brand and product diversification and additional nutrition. The company operates in a very competitive environment with major competitors being P&G, Unilever, and PepsiCo. It has products in almost all countries and has over 500 brands in six continents; Europe, the Americas, and AOA. All its operations are guided by the corporate business principles and the suppliers have to adhere to this code of conduct. Nestle environment is very complex as the organization operates globally. The possible strengths include; strong brands, corporate brand, its structure , and cost advantage while weaknesses include; barriers to entry, competition, complex structure, and minimal rewards. It has an opportunity to venture into new markets due to its reputation and can also engage in a joint venture to diversify its products. The company is also affected by changing consumer demands hence buyer power. The major challenge that may impact on the effectiveness of the organization is to retain workers in a globally competitive environment using its cost-cutting strategies and still add value for shareholders. The threat of worker turnover due to poor performance management is crucial and should be addressed.
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 4:30 PM
Monday, November 18, 2019
Features Of The Childhood Cognitive Development - Assignment Example Constructivists gain knowledge by operating gadgets to discover their properties. The organization is an inborn tendency to combine and integrate available schemes into coherent systems or bodies of knowledge. Intelligence in PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is a basic life function that enables an organism to adapt to its environment. Assimilation is the process of interpreting new experiences by incorporating them into existing schemes. Schemes are organized patterns of thoughts or actions that one constructs to interpret some aspects of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s experience (Shaffer and Kipp 215). According to Piaget, adaptation is the condition in which an individual interacts with, embraces and live by his or her socio-physical and cognitive environment. An individual gets used to his or her environmental aspects regardless of their nature. Assimilation and accommodation concepts complement each other. While assimilation allows for embracement of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment, accommodation requires an individual to accept and appreciate whatever the environment brings forth, including other humans and animals (Shaffer and Kipp 224). Piaget defined intelligence as a basic function of life that enables any organism or human to adapt and fit into his or its immediate environment. Most people would refer to the term as humansÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to perceive and comprehend information for use in cognitive development; and manage daily lives of a socio-physical environment. Sensorimotor stage is the first major period in PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s stage theory, lasting approximately 2 years from birth. According to Piaget, during this stage children are not yet able to comprehend their world and must entirely rely on others especially their mothers to think on their behalf. Piaget asserts that imitation is the purest example of assimilation.
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 3:21 PM
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Development of the World Wide Web CERN stands for Centre Europe n de RecherchÃ © which means the European Organisation for Nuclear Research. After the 2nd World War, many international organisations were evolving during which Raoul Dautry, Pierre Auger and Lew Kowarski from France, Edoardo Amaldi from Italy and Niels Bohr from Denmark intended to build an Atomic Physics Laboratory. After many intergovernal meeting and conventions, on 29 September 1954, it came formally in existence. CERNs main area is high energy physics researches. It provides particle accelerators for nuclear physics experiments. After 1954, there has been numerous researches and evolvements at CERN and is continuing its contribution to science and technology. The main aim of CERN is, Research: Solving the mysteries of the Universe Technology: Developing new technologies. Collaborating: Uniting the nations through science. Education: Providing trainings and research platforms for future scientists. (CERN, 2008) 2. WWW In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist in CERN wrote a proposal to develop a distributed information system for the laboratory. His boss commented the idea to be vague but exciting. After those words the way information was transmitted revolutionised. By 1990, Tim had defined the Webs basic concepts of URL, HTTP and HTML and also wrote the first browser http://info.cern.ch and server software. The WWW was born. (CERN, 2008) 3. Development of WWW After the successful operation on the multi-platform computer network at the CERN laboratories in August 1991 CERN files alt.hypertext was made accessible to the public. During the time all the coded programmes were stored in a computer in CERN called the Web Server because it interconnects with the HTML documents. There was only one web server located at CERN.Gradually after that www began to spread throughout the world specially universities and research labs. YEAR WEB SERVER 1991 1 1992 50 1999 720,000 2001 24 million+ 2010 240 million+ Source: http://www.netcraft.co.uk/survey During 1993, Marc Andreessen, University student at the University of Illinois led a team that developed the Graphical User Interface (GUI) browser called Mosaic. Later, Mosaic was released for Windows and Macintosh platforms to install it.Popularity of this Graphical browser that made people without computer awareness possible to use www by navigating and pointing. (Gribble C, 2009) 4. Internet The internet is a global system of interconnected computers, having ability to provide transparent, self-organising, interoperability among large numbers of diverse networks, host computer and application. (Dimensioning the internet, 1998) 5. Internet History The idea of developing a global network was thought by three pioneers and a conference where they developed a concept of publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks around the world to share the information. Among these pioneers, Vannevar Bush gave an idea of potential uses of information technology through his library system. Norbert Wiener invented the Cybernetics which inspired many developers to work on the possibilities from the IT and Marshall McLuhan made the whole concept of interconnected computer popular. Finally the conference of Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence in 1956 approved the concept and realised the stride improvement of technology. In 1957 the first satellite, Sputnik I was launched by the Soviet Union. This satellite could affect US by the space based nuclear attack. Therefore to stop this US government was forced to create an agency that mandates this kind of foreign attack. As a result US formed Advance Research Project Agency (ARPA).This organisation was primarily created to help defend US against the attack through constant effective communication.JCR Licklider, head of Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) based within the ARPA focused on the benefits of a nationwide communication network. During the process he hired Lawrence Roberts to implement in his vision. Lawrence Roberts led to the development of the network. After few years a special computer called an Interface Message Processor was developed to comprehend the design and in October 1969, network called ARPANET was up and running which was later called CSNET.This network then connected all the universities in America and was later also connected to the EUNet.This was the European network to connect the research facilities in Europe. After the Internet went global, US government had to transfer the management to an independent authority in 1995. (Website 1, Ruthfield S 1995) 6. Internet: Its Uses Internet has made the world into a global village. It uses has been tremendously grown since its introduction. With millions of user worldwide posting and publishing information, its making more data available, producing more results and interacting more easily. Information Internet and www is sometime misinterpreted as a synonym term where as they are totally different. Internet is like hardware of computer which provides software like www to work on it. World Wide Web is a global set of images, documents and other resources logically inter related by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). The internet has enabled individuals and organisation to publish information on such a platform where large number of users can access it.Millions of user posting information worldwide makes internet the biggest database of information and easiest route to use it.Search Engines like Google, Bing, Yahoo, Ask Jeeves has made it even more simpler to look for information in the internet. They are designed to search for information over the internet. By just providing the word for the needed information it searches the entire database in the form of web pages, pictures, videos, or files. Information such as news, product information, maps, weather can be easily retrieved by a single click. Publishing and maintaining web logs (blogs) is also widely in use recently because of the simplicity and zero cost to publish. It is like a diary which can be easily accessed by anyone from anywhere. Users can also build up and take part in discussion forums as per interest and express ones idea as and when and however he/she wishes. Almost every site provides a blog page to make the consumers and internet users provide their honest view easily. So much diverse information online and in within the reach has allowed decentralisation of the information. Retrieval of information from web is certainly quicker, easier and also saves great deal of time compared to encyclopaedias and old fashioned libraries. Communication Communication is another area where the internet is frequently used. It is used in the form of emails, chat, video conference and voice calls. The internet has shown us new ways of communicating and has taken communication to a whole new level. For various reasons such as its low cost, simplicity and accessibility it is getting high attention. Among the all email is an important communication service available. It allows user to send mail electronically with a valid email address to any other valid email address via the internet. It can be read from any computer connected to the internet. User can also attach files like pictures, documents, sound and video with the email. Email has made data transfer and retrieval so much easier. Email gets delivered to the recipient within seconds therefore there is no waiting for the post to get delivered and no worries of losing it. (Folger L, 1997) The next best thing to email is chatting, Chat service allows user to actually have a live conversation with each other or a group. Chat is used in individuals or as a company to pass the message. Many providers like Microsoft and Yahoo provides these features in their website itself for free. (Folger L, 1997) Another way of communicating via the internet is Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP).This technology is used to transfer voice and packet switched networks over the internet. The technology offers ability to transmit more than one telephone call over the same broadband connection. VoIP enables conference calling, call forwarding and many other features which normal telephone has in almost zero cost. So, just with the internet, microphone and web-camera one can call anyone anywhere along with the video call.ÃâÃ (Harris S and Hansen A, ND) Social Networking Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups like small rural communities or a neighbourhood subdivision, if you will. Although social networking is possible in person especially in the workplace, universities and high schools, it is most popular online. This is because unlike most high schools, colleges or workplace, internet is filled with the millions of individuals who are looking to meet other people to get first-hand information and experiences about any number of topics. (Brown K, ND) The internet has enabled entirely new way of interacting with people through social networking. Social sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Bebo provides platform to connect many friends and interact with them which wouldnt have been possible without the internet. It includes visiting other profile pages, commenting or posting feeds, uploading pictures and videos. These kinds of sites have united many friends and groups within the socialisation. However, it definitely arises less face to face interaction and some minor identity thefts. Recently such social sites have also helped raising awareness to the people. E-Shopping The most recent but now a very common and frequent use of the internet is buying and selling over the internet. E-marketing is very popular for many reasons. One good reason is that it takes only a fraction of the cost of advertising through other medium like newspaper and television. Also it has been found that it can reach a far greater consumers based in the internet. E-shopping is also very popular because it can be done sitting in a room. Even if someone needs to sell their products they dont have to open a shop. May be because of this easiness E-shopping is becoming more and more popular. (Folger L, 1997) 7. Future Out of the 6.7 billion human population 1.7 billion of the population is equipped with or has access to internet. This is a growth of 380.3% compared to that of year 2000.The statistics clearly shows the pace of Internets popularity among us people. (Internet World Stats, 2009) Technology is always evolving. The speed which internet developed in the past was so swift it is very likely it will continue its pace in the future.So,what lies in the future for internet and what can users expect? The internet connects world at the present time but is it possible to go further than that? Internet is going off planet.(Dr.Cerf V).A robot is being deployed to North Pole of Mars carrying communication protocol which will eventually lead to inter planetary extension of the internet. Many high-tech innovations such as virtual reality and IP-TV have already become possible in many areas. For example, some medical companies have successfully demonstrated virtual surgery from a virtual flesh. Many websites broadcasts live video through internet protocol (IP) and also allow user to share videos peer to peer (p2p). Most significantly, internet is going mobile in the future. Having said that it is already available in almost all countries with mobile phone facilities but in near future mobile internet will play a major part in the. From heavy machines, internet will be accessible to all possible handhelds and mobile devices. The internet will be accessible anywhere, anytime in a broader band. That means the speed of the net will be very high. For example, time to listen to music will be much higher than to actually download it. We are taking the computer from the two-dimensional desktop metaphor and turning it into a 3D shopping mall model of interaction. (Tom Defanti, ND). This statement clearly suggests where the internet is heading in the future. A 3D interaction will allow Internet users to be in any geographical region without actually getting out of their room. It will allow performing multi task in virtual 3D environment just as in real environment. Besides the development of internet itself, there is also a fear of enslavement by our own creations. Rapid development will eventually lead machines to become intelligent, evolve rapidly and end up treating us like pets. (Saffo P, ND) There is also strong possibility the face interaction will be no more in existence. Even at present, people spend so much time interacting through the internet; there will be time when people will be only interacting with artificially generated stimuli. The development of early forms of networked communication, the telegraph, radio, telephone, television to the internet, communication has come a long way. Prediction made during the 90s is overachieved by 2010.Therefore it wont be surprising if the present prediction comes to reality in future. Ideas like virtual friend, biometric identity and capacity of a machine to download human brain is very daunting. All the developments might be for the benefit of human if the governing body let it remain like that, if not the world will be no more better place to live than it is now.( Janna Quitney Anderson,2006) 8. References IEEE Internet Computing, (1998) Interview: Dan Connolly on the architect of the web, Vol 2,Number 2, March-April, pp. 24-25 IEEE Internet Computing, (1998)Dimensioning the Internet ,Vol 2,Number 2, March-April,p8 Janna Quitney Anderson, (2006) The future of the internet II, Elon UniversityÃ Lee Rainie Web communication(2008), 1954: foundations for European science[online], CERN,available at; http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/about/History54-en.html ,accessed on 26/03/10 Web communication(2008), 1990: Tim Berners-Lee invents the Web [online], CERN, available at http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/about/History90-en.html ,accessed on 26/03/10 Cheryl Gribble(2009), History of the Web; Beginning at CERN [online],hitmill.com,ÃâÃ available http://www.hitmill.com/internet/web_history.html, accessed on 27/03/10 Web Server Survey,WSS(2010),March 2010 Web Server Survey[online],WSS,available,http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2010/03/17/march_2010_web_server_survey.html accessed on 27/03/10 Steve Crocker(2007),Internet History [online],livinginternet.com ,availableÃâÃ at http://www.livinginternet.com/tindex_i.htm ,ÃâÃ accessed on 28/03/10 Steve Crocker(2007),Internet History, One page Summary [online],livinginternet.com ,availableÃâÃ at http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii_summary.htm ,ÃâÃ accessed on 28/03/10 Harris S andÃâÃ Hansen A,A public Net[online],National Science Foundation, available at http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/internet/publicnet.htm accessed on 28/03/10 Internet World Stats(2009), Internet Usage Statistic[online],available atÃâÃ http://www.Internetworldstats.com/stats.htm accessed on 28/03/10 Folger L(1997),Common Uses of Internet[online],available at http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/internet-communication.html accessed on 29/03/2010 http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/uses-of-the-internet.html Folger L(1997),Internet Communication[online],available at http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/internet-communication.html accessed on 29/03/2010 Folger L(1997),What is VoIP?[online],available at http://www.bizymoms.com/computers-and-technology/VOIP.html accessed on 29/03/2010 Brown K,What is Social Networking?[online].Karen Brown, available at http://www.whatissocialnetworking.com/ accessed on 29/03/2010 Harris S andÃ Hansen A, Expectation for the Internet of Tomorrow[online],National Science Foundation, available at http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/internet/expectation.htm accessed on 28/03/10 BBC (2006),Internets future in 2020 debated[online],BBC,available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/5370688.stm accessed on 29/03/10
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 3:53 AM
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Blending Face-to-Face and Distance Learning Methods in Adult and Career-Technical Education :: Learning Adult Education Essays
Blending Face-to-Face and Distance Learning Methods in Adult and Career-Technical Education Strengths and Limitations of the Two Methods In theory, the advantages of face-to-face and distance learning methods complement each other (Leung and Tran 2000). In classroom learning, face-to-face contact both in and out of class can help motivate and involve students; active learning can engage students in thinking and interaction through questioning, discussion, small-group presentation, role play, and case studies. In distance learning via ICT, technology makes material available anytime and anywhere; multimedia (e.g., video and audio) can engage multiple brain channels; graphics can help understanding of complex concepts; interactive activities can involve students in dynamic learning through a cycle of questions/answers/feedback; discussion and work groups allow students to evaluate their performance against that of peers. It is important to note, however, that those two sets of complementary advantages are sometimes only theoretical (Cutshall 2002; McKavanagh et al. 2002). In practice, both face-to-face and ICT distance programs often rely on transmissionist, teacher-centered provision of information rather than on interactive, student-centered construction of knowledge; students may end up receiving passively both online and in the classroom. Nevertheless, two themes clearly emerge as the most frequently cited strengths: the personal contact allowed by face-to-face classroom learning and the flexibility allowed by distance learning. An interesting wrinkle is that different distance learning methods can offer different combinations of personal contact and flexibility (Cutshall 2002; McKavanagh et al. 2002; Miller and Webster 1997; Perraton 1991; Zirkle 2002). In synchronous distance methods (e.g., satellite TV, audioconferencing, videoconferencing, live Internet chat), learners and/or instructors are all engaged in the activity at the same time, restricting flexibility; flexibility is further restricted by methods like audioconferencing or videoconferencing in which participants must be at a physical location with necessary technology and hook-ups. However, asynchronous methods allow learners and instructors to participate at different times. Learners can listen to audiotapes, view videotapes, check e-mail, log on to a threaded discussion, or visit webpages anytime; the necessary technology is widelyÃ¢â¬âalthough not universallyÃ¢â¬âavailable. The ultimate in flexibility is the "anytime anywhere" availabili ty of a web-based course or course components. It may be surprising that studies examining the connection between learning style and success among distance learning students yield mixed results. Aragon, Johnson, and Shaik (2000) found no correlation between learning style preference and course grade among online adult students in advanced technology education, in spite of differences in learning style preferences between online and face-to-face students enrolled in the program. Blending Face-to-Face and Distance Learning Methods in Adult and Career-Technical Education :: Learning Adult Education Essays Blending Face-to-Face and Distance Learning Methods in Adult and Career-Technical Education Strengths and Limitations of the Two Methods In theory, the advantages of face-to-face and distance learning methods complement each other (Leung and Tran 2000). In classroom learning, face-to-face contact both in and out of class can help motivate and involve students; active learning can engage students in thinking and interaction through questioning, discussion, small-group presentation, role play, and case studies. In distance learning via ICT, technology makes material available anytime and anywhere; multimedia (e.g., video and audio) can engage multiple brain channels; graphics can help understanding of complex concepts; interactive activities can involve students in dynamic learning through a cycle of questions/answers/feedback; discussion and work groups allow students to evaluate their performance against that of peers. It is important to note, however, that those two sets of complementary advantages are sometimes only theoretical (Cutshall 2002; McKavanagh et al. 2002). In practice, both face-to-face and ICT distance programs often rely on transmissionist, teacher-centered provision of information rather than on interactive, student-centered construction of knowledge; students may end up receiving passively both online and in the classroom. Nevertheless, two themes clearly emerge as the most frequently cited strengths: the personal contact allowed by face-to-face classroom learning and the flexibility allowed by distance learning. An interesting wrinkle is that different distance learning methods can offer different combinations of personal contact and flexibility (Cutshall 2002; McKavanagh et al. 2002; Miller and Webster 1997; Perraton 1991; Zirkle 2002). In synchronous distance methods (e.g., satellite TV, audioconferencing, videoconferencing, live Internet chat), learners and/or instructors are all engaged in the activity at the same time, restricting flexibility; flexibility is further restricted by methods like audioconferencing or videoconferencing in which participants must be at a physical location with necessary technology and hook-ups. However, asynchronous methods allow learners and instructors to participate at different times. Learners can listen to audiotapes, view videotapes, check e-mail, log on to a threaded discussion, or visit webpages anytime; the necessary technology is widelyÃ¢â¬âalthough not universallyÃ¢â¬âavailable. The ultimate in flexibility is the "anytime anywhere" availabili ty of a web-based course or course components. It may be surprising that studies examining the connection between learning style and success among distance learning students yield mixed results. Aragon, Johnson, and Shaik (2000) found no correlation between learning style preference and course grade among online adult students in advanced technology education, in spite of differences in learning style preferences between online and face-to-face students enrolled in the program.
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 4:23 PM
Monday, November 11, 2019
The problem with plastics The problem with plastic is that it doesn't break down and go into the soil it Just sits there for years and years and it's way overused. We use plastic for A LOT of things: packaging, transporting, manufacturing, etc, but do we ever stop to think about what happens to the plastic after we're done using it, or where it ends up? The Ã¢â¬Ëout of sight, out of mind' saying is perfect when it comes to a lot of environmental issues, especially the issue with plastic. Plastic is made from petroleum, which the earth cannot digest.Instead of plastic biodegrading (breaking down in the soil) it breaks down into smaller and smaller pieces, which causes more harm than Just staying in one piece. For example, if the plastic ends up in the ocean, the plastic pieces will get smaller, and filter feeders will start to eat those pieces. Since filter feeders are on the bottom of the food chain, every organism (birds, fish, marine mammals, etc. ) that feeds on the filter feede rs are also eating plastic. Plastic that ends up in the ocean, kills around one million marine organisms each year!One of the most obvious impacts of plastic bottles is what happens after its been thrown away. According to the Container recycling institute, 86% of plastic water bottles used in the US become garbage that ends up in landfills throughout the country. About 60 million plastic water bottles are used every day in the US. Each year making the plastic water bottles used in the US Takes enough oil and energy to fuel 1 million cars All that energy spent to make Water bottles even more to ship it around the Country
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 4:54 AM
Friday, November 8, 2019
Essay on organisational behaviour Essay on organisational behaviour What is attribution theory? Explain the process the manager will use to form judgements about employee job performance? When we observe people we attempt to explain why they behave a certain ways. Judgements or perceptions are influence by the assumptions we make about a personÃ¢â¬â¢s internal state. An attempt to determine whether an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour is internally or externally caused. Internally under persons control Externally behaviour we imagine the situation force the individual to do. Determination depends on 3 factors Distinctiveness Ã¢â¬â different behaviours displayed in different situations Consensus Ã¢â¬â everyone facing similar situation responds same way, behaviour shows consensus. Consistency Ã¢â¬â does the person respond same way over time, behaviour same over time may be judged as caused by internal factors Fundamental attribution error - managers tend to understate the influence of external causes and overstate the influence o internal or personal factors. I.e. Manager may attribute employees poor performance to laziness rather than poor product quality or competitors selling it cheaper. Self-Serving bias Ã¢â¬â individuals attribute their own successes to internal factors while laying blame for failures on external factors. i.e failure in exam due to not enough time given, not that student didnÃ¢â¬â¢t put more effort into study. Shortcuts in judging others Selective perception Ã¢â¬â selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s interests, background, experiences and attitudes. Halo effect Ã¢â¬â general impression drawn about an individual on basis of single characteristic Contrast effects Ã¢â¬â evaluation of persons character effected by comparing with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on same characteristic Stereotyping Ã¢â¬â Judging based on ones perception of the group to which that person belongs. 1. Rational decision making DIADES Ã¢â¬â model how individuals should behave in order to maximise some outcome. Define the problem Identify the decision criteria
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 10:52 PM
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Medical Ethics in Television Episodes essays Medical ethics is one of the most hotly debated topics within modern ethical and moral discussions because it centers on the debate of the preservation of life. No where else is this more evident than in the surgery field, because ethical considerations and hard decisions have to be made on a daily basis. Greys Anatomy, an Emmy Award winning television show surrounding the drama of a surgical ward in Seattle, Washington attempts to accurately capture the ethical and moral dilemmas faced by surgeons on a daily level. The value conflict that this show attempts to exhibit the most within its episodes is the conflict between catering to patients desires and sticking to established professional protocol. The reason that this value debate is embedded in every episode is because it is a real situation that many surgeons face. Through the actions of Meredith Grey and her associates it is evident that the creators of this show value the welfare of patients over the adherence to professio nal standards and protocol. Patient desires and professional protocol is something that consistently overlaps. This occurs in primarily two categories; in the first scenario patients do not understand the full implications of medical decisions and as a result make personal decisions without fully understanding the circumstances. In the second scenario patients understand the implications of the medical decision, but make personal decisions that are exceptions to the existing protocol. These two scenarios exist in abundance within Greys Anatomy. The most poignant scene where this is evidenced is in the episode McVet is the New George. Dr. Addison faces an ethical dilemma, a pregnant woman who is going through her seventh birth asks her to secretly tie her tubes so that she cannot have anymore children. This woman is part of an extremely religious family in which her husband does not believe in the use of contraceptives...
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 4:49 PM
Monday, November 4, 2019
Learning to read and write - Essay Example Fredrick Douglass, in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to Read and write,Ã¢â¬ gives an account of slavery and how depriving it was to him as well as other slaves under the abolition movement. He takes us through his seven year life under his master and mistress in a captivating manner that clearly brings out the situation many slaves had to encounter. The master was consistently against his slaveÃ¢â¬â¢s learning while the mistress initially supported and even thought him how to write but later succumbed to the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s directives not to have Fredrick literate. But out of a great personal resolve and determination he was able to succeed in learning how to read and write. The mistress was such a kind woman and initially treated Fredrick just the way she supposed a human being should be treated by another. She even could teach him how to read and write but with time gave in to the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s directions not to do that. She not only stopped instructing him but also discouraged anyone from instructing him. But Fredrick had been given the inch when the mistress taught him the alphabet and therefore nothing could stop him from taking the ell. He therefore used all strategies available to acquire literacy and understand what certain words like slavery, abolition and others meant. Generally slaves were seen as lesser humans with limited capability in academics and other fields of life. They did not have any constitutional rights hence most of them were even not allowed to marry, those who were married were separated from their families and their children could be taken and sold off any time without their permission. They were used in lotteries, were not allowed to testify in courts and were not entitled to education. Their movements as well as interactions were closely monitored and they had to carry around the pass every time. (Brumley, 1999). The slaves therefore employed different strategies sometimes to reverse their situations. The slave in
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 9:48 AM
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Organizational Communication and Conflict Resolution - Essay Example Under this new configuration, corporate communication is defined as "an instrument of management by means of which all consciously used forms of internal and external communication are harmonized as effectively and efficiently as possible to create a favorable basis for relationships with groups upon which the company is dependent (Van Riel, 1995)." This reflects a growing recognition by top management and corporate boardroom that the ability to succeed and rise above the competition depends upon the firm's capability to communicate effectively with its stakeholders, thus making corporate communication an absolute and integral part of top management functions. In line with this thinking, communication managers and departments are now assigned such loftier titles as corporate communications, public affairs or corporate affairs (Fombrum, 1996). It also gave rise to a new corporate communication vocabulary, which consists of words like stakeholders, identity and reputation, among others. Moreover, the work of corporate communication has widened in scope to take place at three dimensions: corporate, market and operational levels. This corporate work involves communicating the organization's mission and vision to its shareholders, employees, customers, etc., while the market-oriented activity explores and implement ways by which the company can compete best in a given market. At the operational level, the communication group is left to manage its own resources, processes and people, a function used to be done on its behalf by the finance department, the engineering section and the human resource department. Relationship to Management How corporate communication has wormed its way into the top rung of the corporate ladder may be seen at Siemens, whose productivity, profitability and corporate image continue to be the envy of its competitors. At Siemens, communication managers oversee a wide range of activities related to management and decision-making, including analysis and research, formulation of communication objectives for the entire organization, and counseling of senior management. The company maintains a corporate communication department that handles advertising, internal communication and media relations. In addition, there is a central corporate messages section that supervises the senior communication professionals responsible for developing and protecting the overall corporate image of Siemens, as well as copywriters for the speeches of senior managers. Such consolidation of communication activities in one or two departments is now commonplace in progressive companies, with the communication practitio ners having the ear of CEOs and senior executive teams, especially on stakeholder and reputation issues (Grunig & Grunig, 1998). The same importance is given to corporate communication by Philips, which keeps a large corporate communication department at its head office in Amsterdam that counsels the CEO and senior managers on
Posted by quistopgore1988 at 3:23 AM