Saturday, August 31, 2019

Stick and Stones

†Sticks and Stones† by Trezza Azzopardi (2006) In the short story, we follow a man named Lewis. Lewis is the main character, who keeps dreaming about the same thing over and over. He dreams about him at the strand. He used to have a terrible experience there. He moved to the core of England, to escape from the terrible trauma. But now he has returned to his mother’s house, where he gets clear images in his mind. Lewis is a teacher, in the text it says, â€Å"The second envelope contains a note from the Headmaster†¦come in and discuss matters† This quote supports the statement about Lewis being a teacher.He seems to be a person who wants to change the way things are, but he has been taught by his mother, that he needs to blend in, and she also says â€Å"it’s the survival of the fittest†. The environment he has been raised in has stopped him from doing the things, which he wanted to do. That is expressed in the text where it says, â€Å"So metimes he imagines he’s the kind of person that challenges teachers like Stott and Walker, the kind that the Headmaster takes seriously. † He is not the kind of person who stands out. He was probably bullied in school when he was younger, because Lewis gets to identify himself in a boy called Paul Fry.Paul Fry is a boy who gets bullied by some boys. Lewis always feels the need to help him. No one had helped Lewis, back in the days; he also stopped telling about his problems to his mother, because he felt it was hopeless. She had told him that he just should fit in. In the text it says, â€Å"But he took her words literally, became expert at running away†¦ † He doesn’t face his problem, because that is the way he is raised. The author has used flashbacks in the text. The use of flashbacks makes the reader more informed. By using flashbacks, the story becomes more interesting and dynamic.The flashbacks also give the story a timeline and they widen the time. The story begins with a flashback about Lewis’ bad experience. This flashback is about him committing suicide. He is falling from the dunes at the strand. Another flashback is where he sees Paul Fry getting bullied, by some guys. The flashback affects the story. They give the story a meaning and reveal information about the character as well. By reading the flashbacks, we get to know Lewis better. His past tells us about why he is the way he is now, it defines him. E. g. Lewis wants to help Paul Fry, because Lewis once where victim like Paul Fry. In the ending of the story there is a quote, â€Å"Lewis puts his stones in his pocket. He will stop running he thinks. He has survived after all† This quote indicates that he is now ready to let go of his pebbles that he used to lick. He also comes to the strand when things are difficult as it says in the text, â€Å"When things were difficult, he would go to the strand and find his mother a new piece of quartz† He has now stopped is previous behaviour and he is changing. The themes in the short story is bullying and facing serious problems.The bullying part is because both Lewis and Paul Fry get bullied, and it ends up with them wanting to commit suicide. This is a serious problem, which Lewis is trying to escape from. He keeps running away from his problem. That has become his nature, because of the way his mother brought him up. That was the only solution he knew, but in the end of the story he comes to the conclusion that he must accept things and face them. By doing that he can move on. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. pg. 2 ll. 36-37 [ 2 ]. pg. 3 ll. 67 [ 3 ]. pg. 2-3 ll. 61-62 [ 4 ]. pg. 5 ll. 126-127 [ 5 ]. pg. 3 ll. 91-92

Friday, August 30, 2019

Chipotle Mexican Grill Essay

I. Key Problem What Steven Ells began with a small taqueria in Denver, Colorado in 1993, one may not have foreseen this venture to become the fastest growing restaurant chain in the last decade. By 2006, Ells’ idea made its initial public offering with 535 restaurants throughout the world. Things were going tremendously well for CMG until late afternoon on October 18, 2012 when Ells finished receiving the company’s third quarter results. While data indicated an overall satisfactory outcome, it was the competition from Yum Brands’ Taco Bell and their recent launch of the Cantina Bell menu that would result in what seemed to be the onset of a major problem. Taco Bell had now become a major competitor to Chipotle since the launch of their new Cantina Bell menu allowing them to enter into the fast-casual segment in offering similar ingredients and items as Chipotle had. At the same time CMG paid a significant amount more for their products forcing them to charge a higher price on their menu items. Taco Bell, however, now offered similar items for half the price. The bottom line: competition was the root of this problem. The fact that Chipotle menu prices were higher as compared to that of Taco Bell’s new menu would lead to consumers or normally loyal customers to give the Cantina Bell menu a try. After the launch of the Cantina Bell menu in the summer of 2012, CMG stock significantly declined just after third quarter results were announced. To add insult to injury, Jeff Einhorn, a hedge fund leader, presented at the Value Investors Conference in New York City proclaiming that CMG was an attractive stock for short-sellers because of the considerable competition from Taco Bell. He further stated, â€Å"23% of Chipotle customers had already tried Taco Bell’s Cantina Bell menu†¦and two-thirds of those customers indicated they would return. What’s more, the customers most likely to return to Taco Bell were also those most likely to eat at Chipotle, a dynamic that indicates to me that Chipotle is most at risk of losing its frequent customers.† This message led to CMG’s stock falling by more than 4% within hours of the conclusion of the presentation. The announcement of projected increases in food costs on the part of CMG also contributed to the competition between them and Taco Bell. While Chipotle stood by its belief that it is â€Å"Food with Integrity† because of better ingredients, the Cantina Bell menu produced something similar while lowering the cost a customer would have to pay for a meal, therefore, causing further competition between the two. II. Relevant Theory By looking at the items offered on the Cantina Bell menu versus those on Chipotle’s menu, I determined that they both have a competitive advantage. Chipotle is a premium product offered at a higher price where it reaches a broader market share that is willing to pay more money. On the other hand, Taco Bell’s main strategic course is cost leadership which enables them to reach a broader market share with a lower price for the desired item. As shown on Example 1 the Competitive Advantage and Economic Value Created are somewhat different between the two companies. Since Chipotle offers a better quality of ingredients, consumers are willing to pay a higher price. As a result, creating a higher Value (V) for a burrito is at the same time creating a greater economic value (Value-Cost.) Meanwhile the economic value created by Taco Bell is smaller since the value of their product is less and consumer’s maximum willingness to pay will be lower. Example 1 Since Yum Brands launching of the new Cantina Bell menu, this new organic ingredient-driven list of selections has been a pretty obvious attempt to compete with fast casual giant Chipotle. This is what has become the major concern for Chipotle where competition is becoming fierce and for practically half the price the Cantina Bell menu is a definite value. However, you do get what you pay for and the overall quality and taste of Chipotle still has a slightly greater edge over Taco Bell. The value someone will be willing to pay for a Taco Bell burrito will be less than the value Chipotle has created with their better quality ingredients, hence creating a greater economic value. III. Assessment of Alternatives How could Chipotle effectively approach their key problem which is Taco Bell’s new Cantina Bell menu? What seems to be the main concern for Chipotle is that Taco Bell is trying to provide a similar product for half the price. Some of the alternatives available to Chipotle to are: †¢ Buy low cost goods to reduce prices using Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) †¢ Another option could be to offer a smaller burrito for a smaller price, or to include less amounts of meat as Taco Bell does †¢ Continue doing what they do best and differentiate themselves Should Chipotle buy low cost goods to reduce prices using Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), it would allow them to offer menu items at a lower cost to the consumer providing greater competition between them and Taco Bell’s Cantina Bell menu. However, in doing so would contradict their philosophy of providing the best quality ingredients in their food. In doing so, it will change CMG’s strategy from being a premium product and higher price to a cost leadership strategy and at the same time reducing the value of its product. Another option could be to offer a smaller burrito for a smaller price, or to include less amounts of meat as Taco Bell does in its Cantina Bell menu. This would also allow for cost effectiveness on both the consumer and Chipotle’s side, however, it would go against CMG’s mission statement of being â€Å"Food with Integrity†, lower its value and become a cost leadership strategy as opposed to being a premium product and higher price. A third alternative is for CMG to continue to compete effectively by doing what they already are doing which is differentiation based on quality and sustainability. This approach supports its philosophical message of better food for the consumer and community as well as being environmentally conscious. This allows CMG to maintain its values and remain within their strategy segment. On the contrary, this alternative force Chipotle to increase their menu prices while reducing its consumer surplus. IV. Suggested Course of Action After carefully analyzing the different alternatives, the best course of action is to continue to compete effectively on differentiation based on quality and sustainability given the mounting competitive and sourcing challenges. Even thought Taco Bell’s new menu seems like a significant threat they are far from creating the same value and reputation Chipotle has created since it opened its first restaurant in 1993. Not only does Chipotle provide the freshest and best ingredients with a bold flavor, they are setting themselves apart from any other restaurant chain and main competitor since they continuously are working toward better practices. They continue to push to sustainable sourcing like getting their meat form non Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) while at the same time contributing to the promotion of good animal health and fighting against animal abuse. In addition, CMG buys products from local farms, builds restaurants to be eco friendly and LEED certified (leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) while trying to keep the cost and price of other items down. As their value statement proclaims, â€Å"Food with Integrity† is a mission of serving good quality food with inputs sourced using sustainable farming practices. Even thought new threats like Taco Bell’s Cantina Bell menu are presenting a challenge there will always be competition. CMG upholds strong beliefs to do what is best for the environment and for its communities in order to provide the best products to its consumers. This is precisely why they have grown so fast from the opening of their first taqueria, to the capital infusion from McDonald’s, to its initial Public offering (IPO.) They have been the fastest growing chain in the last decade and just like any fast growing business, regardless of their success, they will reach a slower growth as they approach maturity. There will still be opportunity for expansion. Chipotle is certainly heading toward a different direction than their competitors making them stand out and become a lot harder to imitate. This alternative is truly the only logical option for Chipotle as it continues to enforce its philosophy of providing â€Å"Food with Integrity.† There will always be competition between companies and products, however, if Chipotle chooses another route for combating this rivalry with Taco Bell, it would not allow itself to differentiate from them. V. Key Takeaways Before reading this case, I knew nothing about Chipotle but after reading it I am quite impressed by the approach CMG has taken choosing to go a different route most companies are afraid of doing because of higher cost prices. I was equally impressed they choose organic products, to buy from local farms, being against massive animal feeding as well as animal cruelty and that they are eco friendly and are looking to make all their restaurants like this. Of course, I should also mention that one knows one will be eating the best ingredients and most fresh available foods. I am confident as the values of this company are brought to the attention of more of the public, Chipotle will reach a bigger market share as the public demand will rise. I would also predict other companies and restaurants will follow similar suit. As mentioned earlier, there will always be competition in business, but a firm must find their differentiation advantage. As individuals become more educated and understand the factor facing the environment people will be willing to make a change and help make a difference.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Analyse The Factors Contributing To Language Maintenance Education Essay

Analyse The Factors Contributing To Language Maintenance Education Essay In countries of significant migration, like Australia, newly arrived settlers from non-English speaking countries need to become bilingual, adding to fluency in their own language at least some fluency in English. With the passage of time, perhaps generations, families may find that their ethnic language becomes lost to them. Many consider that this loss is not only a loss for families and individuals, but that it is also a loss for the community at large. For the purposes of this essay, the term â€Å"language maintenance† is used to refer to the ability of ethnic communities, families and individuals to maintain their own language while adapting to the language of their new country. This essay will consider the factors which appear to influence the maintenance of a language, focusing on some of the more powerful social and psychological forces which propel individuals towards the continued learning and maintenance of a minority language. There seems to be little doubt among the researchers that attitudes influence language maintenance. In fact, attitudes towards the minority language and culture appear to underlie the other relevant factors, which include sense of ethnic identity, motivation and family support. These factors will be dealt with in turn in this essay. There is a considerable body of evidence that attitudes to the ethnic language and culture influence language maintenance. In order to consider attitudes towards a language, one needs to consider what makes a language valuable. According to Edwards (1985), greater possibilities of employment and acceptance by the community that speaks the language are some valuable qualities. Factors that devalue a language would include the embarrassment some children feel about parents’ use of the minority language in public when the children want to conform. Gardner (1985) has produced and reviewed studies attempting to establish a relationship between attitudes towards a language and culture and motivation to practise the language and participate in that culture. He concludes on the basis of the research that attitudes are fairly consistently related to achievement in a language. Political issues obviously affect attitudes and Romaine (1989, p. 42), in dealing with the effect of ties with the homeland on language maintenance, wrote that â€Å"refugees often reject the language of the oppressive regime and try to assimilate to the new culture as quickly as possible†. An individual’s and community’s sense of ethnic identity appears to have a profound influence on language maintenance. Issues of identity are extremely personal and often emotional, interwoven as they are with personality. One expects the extent to which a person identifies with his/her ethnic background to influence the motivation behind maintenance of the ethnic language. Some studies (e.g. Bentahila and Davies, 1992) have disputed this expectation. It appears that it is possible for a sp eech community to value its ethnic background and language highly though not passing it on to their children, possibly for utilitarian reasons. Or language may not be considered a core value of ethnic identity, as with the Dutch community in Australia, which tends not to maintain the Dutch language over generations (Clyne, 1982). The Dutch community in Australia, according to Smolicz and Secombe (1979), is a group that does not consider it very important to retain its own culture as distinct to that of the dominant majority. Poles and Greeks, however, are language-centred cultures, in which language is considered an important and defining aspect of group membership. These communities, according to Clyne (1979), do maintain their languages well. It thus appears that a strong sense of ethnic identity is an important factor contributing to language maintenance as long as language is considered an important part of that identity.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

How might the recent consultation on No Secrets impact on social work Essay

How might the recent consultation on No Secrets impact on social work practice in safeguarding adults Draw on your knowledge of the personalisation agenda to inform your discussion - Essay Example This paper could also be in terms of seeking to identify and execute pre-designed projects. Again, Department of Health, (DoH) the Home Office (HO) and the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) launched a national consultation on the review of the No Secrets guidance. This consultation paper was about how the public, especially vulnerable people should identify and manage risk, particularly as efforts are being made to move towards increasing choice and control for people with learning and other kinds of disabilities. Through this paper, a critical analysis is being directed on of how the recent consultation on No secrets impacted social work practice in relation to safeguarding adults. It needs to draw from knowledge of the personalisation agenda. At the outset, it is necessary to know how the national framework paper No Secrets defines vulnerable person. According to it, â€Å"A Vulnerable adult is any person aged 18 or over who is or may be in need of community care services by reason of: Thus it becomes to understand and explain about the aspects of personalisation. In effect â€Å"This means that every person who receives support, whether provided by statutory services or funded by themselves, will be empowered to shape their own lives and the services they receive in all care settings.† (An introduction to personalisation, 2008). It also means that the degree of care and standards of providing high quality health services becomes a sine quo non in as far as health services in the UK context are concerned. It could also be in terms of the fact that vulnerable persons, people who may be higher degree of susceptible to abuses, either of psychological or physical nature, need to be afforded a better degree of care and attention that normal people. This is because these vulnerable people have a lower degree of physical and mental self defense mechanism than normal

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Malala Yousafzai and Her Leadership Style Assignment

Malala Yousafzai and Her Leadership Style - Assignment Example The author of the paper tells that Malala Yousafzai was nominated for the Nobel peace prize in 2013 and 2014, winning it in the latter year, and becoming the youngest noble winner. In her push in promoting education for the girl child, she has exhibited several leadership styles. The three main leadership styles are discussed to better understand her style and her influence on the society. Malala Yousafzai can be seen practicing both participative and laissez-faire style of leadership as she is involved in promoting girls education through social media and other news channels. She is actively involved in the process, and she takes every opportunity she gets to pass across the message. Democratic or Participative leadership seeks to obtain cooperation of workers in achieving organizational goals by allowing them to participate in decision-making. It does not relieve the leader of his decision-making responsibilities of his power over subordinates, but it requires that he recognise sub ordinates as capable of contributing positively to decision making. Laissez Faire Style (Free Reign) does not depend on the leader to provide external motivation but, the workers motivate themselves based on their needs, wants and desires. They are given goals and left on their own to achieve them. The leader assumes the role of a group member. Her actions portray her as a strong-willed woman who does not relent on her goal no matter what challenges come her way. She faced death threats from the Taliban but she did not give up on her mission to advocate the girl child education. She wrote a blog on the issue without fear of the threat she had received. This resulted in an attempted assassination that failed. She recovered from the injuries sustained with increased vigour to promote girls education on every platform she had.

Monday, August 26, 2019


EUROPEAN UNION EQUALITY POLICIES AND WORKPLACE LEGISLATION - Essay Example The legislation also advocate for the provisions that ensure that the disabled people in the society are able to work comfortably. This essay shall discuss the equality policies and workplace legislations that cover gender, age, religion and belief, race, and ethnicity. The European Union has formulated policies that advocate for gender equality in many angles. They ensure and promote the existence of equity between men and women, the promote application of gender mainstreaming and facilitate exploration of transgender issues. The policies ensure that the European Union observes gender equality in all the activities at the workplace. The legislations through the Treaty of Rome came up with a principle that ensure that each member state shall give equal pay for men women for equal work (Allen QC & Crasnow, 2001). This principle advocates for equality between men and women and concentrates in the equality at the workplace than in the society. Among all the inequalities in the workplace, the European Union takes more focus to address the issue of gender inequality. The European Union has so far launched a committee that advocates for women rights in its member states. It then established a commission on equal opportunities for all gender to support th e activities carried out by the advisory that handles issues on the availability of equal opportunities between men and women. To sum all these efforts up the European Union has a Commissioner that issues an annual report on gender equality (Carver & Mottier, 1998). The European union refers to equality between men and women when dealing with issues of gender equality rather than women rights since the latter appears as one sided which shows one kind of gender is given dominance. Apart from the provision of equal pay for equal work of an equal value for all gender the European Union has a directive that ensures equal treatment for all gender in matters concerning access to training and employment. This clause also

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Art- Principles of Design Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Art- Principles of Design - Term Paper Example This paper will first discuss Luis Barragan’s Torri Satellites in the context of Modernist architecture. Then it will proceed to Benvenuto Cellini’s metal sculpture of the salt-cellar for King Francis I, created during the Renaissance period. Finally, the essay will turn its focus on Albrecht Durer’s metal craft entitled, Melencolia I created during the Italian Renaissance movement. Luis Barragan is one of the most renowned architects due to his firm devotion to modernism of the 20th century. Given this primary devotion to a new feat in the history of architecture, it can be said that Barragan’s philosophical leaning when it comes to the context of his field is towards the propagation of this new movement in architecture. It is with such philosophy that his works are transformed into structures of simplicity, elegance and unorthodoxy- one that is very new to the eyes of the people. Barragan is one of those who revolutionized the Modern Movement which began in the 1920s. The architect shares the same approach to this new phase of architecture with his colleagues like Lina Bo Bardi, Jose Antonio Coderch, Fernando Tavora, and Jorn Utzon (UNESCO 144). In 1957, Luis Barragan created his memorable piece, the Torri Satellites, which became well-known in the world. A joint-effort between him, the painter Jesus Reyes Ferreira and the sculptor Mathias Goeritz catapulted Barragan into the international line-up of architects and making him a recipient of the prestigious Pritzker Prize for Architecture in1980. The epitome of the Modern Movement of architecture is ever present in Luis Barragan’s Torri Satellites. This 4-piece structure is erected in a high class zone; each piece is a symbolism of utter simplicity because of its simple triangular cylinder. This is very modernist in nature – the very style that explains Luis Barragan’s talent for architecture. Also, the color of each tower patterned in primary shades of red, blu e and yellow with the addition of a simple white for the last tower all explain how the concept of the Modern Movement caters minimalism in its designs (Ulloa 4). Going back several centuries in the annals of art history, Benvenuto Cellini was an exceptional goldsmith who surpassed the precepts of metal craft and was transformed into a painter and sculptor, thus a full-bred Italian artist of the early Renaissance period. All of Cellini’s mastery, his high class metal crafts and his intricate designs as both sculptor and painter, can be seen in a single work that he had created for King Francis I of France, the famous salt-cellar. It is in this salt-cellar that one can see the intricacy of Cellini’s style and the careful use of iconography as part of his designs. The salt-cellar for Francis I was one to be considered as Cellini’s exceptional works because the piece of art was a small-scale figure. The tight attention to detail and the symbolism attributed thereof was the highlight of Cellini’s masterpiece. The minute scale of Cellini’s piece was not a hindrance for his artistic capabilities to show. The salt-cellar for Francis I was a perfect example of the fusion of pre-Renaissance to the Renaissance precepts of art. Pre-Renaissance focused on the material value of an object which gives it the proper indication for social status. Renaissance, on the other hand, focused on the artistic value of an object. Cellini’

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT - Essay Example Introduction An organization could only be considered dynamic if it’s operational and it’s performing. The quality of the operation will influence its competitiveness and express its influence in the market to leverage. Part of 1 of this paper is some annotated bibliography on performance management and the second part is a company analysis. Theme 1. Annotated Bibliography Arnason, R., (2009). Fisheries management and operations research, European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 193(3), pages 741-751. Author is a scholar specializing his study on the aquatic reserves and who was challenged to evaluate the fishery industry anent to some deep-rooted problem on economic inefficiency e.g. blaming on inappropriate social institutions which control fishing management and common property development. Author argued the needs to replace the existing institutions that can provide appropriate leadership and management attune to the ideal social objectives of fisher ies. While author recognized the singular objective of fishing industry which is to maximize the present value and benefits from fisheries but empirical realities on the ground showed variegated, conflicting and interests of groups within the industry. Arnason contended that it’s more appropriate to embrace a multi-objective programming system with such management regime that is inclusive of (1) fisheries management system, (2) enforcement and (3) fisheries policies. This system, for him, should be correlated to the cost required in fisheries management and its value of harvest. Author further acknowledged that there ought to be a balance in fisheries management with cost efficiency amid multidisciplinary issues to ensure that managers are able to perform the necessary tasks necessary to have effective produce. Holsapple, C. W. & Lee-Post, A. (2010). Behavior-based analysis of knowledge dissemination channels in operations management, Omega, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 167- 178. Authors are scholars taking serious interests on analyzing the behaviors about how knowledge is disseminated in operation management. Both contended that the significance if this discipline is vital for knowledge dissemination through journals, magazines, books, and other online sources for information that are supportive or are exploring more about the significance of operational management, which may include surveys, analyses. Though the study was quite limited by scope and resources utilized to fit the needs of the researcher, however, the examination of behaviors as explicated in the resources used was able to explicate the three metrics for rating publications for operational management studies. Researchers believed that the metric can be utilized by those who are working to determine which OM journals or books uphold substantial relevance. Galindo, G. & Batta, R. (2013). Review of recent developments in OR/MS research in disaster operations management, European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 230(2), pages 201-211. Researchers are scholars who have serious interests in reviewing the developments in OR/MS studies focused on disaster operation management. They affirmed that as disaster impacts to large number of populace and create serious environmental damages, the devastating effects inspire interests on scrutinizing the disaster operations management are undertaken using the studies of Nezih Altay and Walter

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Human resource management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 1

Human resource management - Essay Example Recruitment and selection Hiring and firing forms one of the basic and core functions of HR practitioners. It mainly deals with identifying potential applicants for present as well as future openings. They are also involved in assessment and evaluation so that efficient placement and selection decisions are made. Establishing procedures and policies for recruitment and hiring in another area dealt with the HR managers in an organization (Tyson, 1995). 2. Benefits and compensation The second core function handled by HR department is compensation and benefits management. Their job is providing a rational method for determination of right payment for right jobs. Since it is a critical component of the business, the function is entirely managed by HR managers. It is also related to employee development and incentive program. 3. Training and development Training and development is another vital function in an organization. The HR practitioners are involved in creating training and develop ment programs which are aimed at solving issues such as employee performance, skills enhancement, increasing expertise and overall personality etc (Chan and Scott-Ladd, 2004). HR managers have special expertise in program evaluation and unlike other managers; they are able to utilize employee feedback in a better manner. Training and development is an important function which assures that employees are capable of job performance at acceptable levels (Nasiripour and Kazemi, 2012). 4. Performance management Performance management is the ability to effectively manage the overall performance of employees in an organization. Implementation and establishment of a complete performance management program is an essential function. Designing the process, reviewing, maintaining and effective monitoring is a challenging task and requires expertise. Coaching managers about the use and implementation of performance management programs is also an essential function of the HR team (Hughes and Rog, 2008). Literature The current business environment is dominated by globalization and internationalization. Organizations have become multinational and cross-cultural teams are common in firms. The current challenge of HR practitioners is to create new strategies and meet the ever increasing expectations and challenges as a result of the continuous evolution. They are also expected to create and add value to the organization. In the following sections external and internal factors and their effect on the overall HR functions will be discussed. Influence of external factors on HR functions Political In political terms, the external factors which can influence the work of HR practitioners as well as HRM functions are trade unions. Trade unions are officially recognized employee associations, joined together as a collective and united front voice in order to deal with management issues. The objective behind these trade unions is to secure the economic and social interest and well-being of the members of the organizations. Since trade unions become an additional party in relationship between employees and the company, they are considered as external influencing factors (Jackson and Schuler, 1995).Various laws are associated with union laws. Trade unions affect the HR laws and functions in various ways. Management has less flexibility and discretion while administering and implementing HR procedures, policies and practices while communicating with unionized

Friday, August 23, 2019

Reflections on World's Leadership Research Paper - 1

Reflections on World's Leadership - Research Paper Example Leadership is influential when a good leader is in control, but does not have any effect if a bad leader is in control showing the big difference in leadership and success of organizations, businesses and countries. Leadership has to be the most influential process ever. However, the influence can be ensured by good leaders who have respect, intelligence, inspiration, vision, good listeners and above all have integrity and high self esteem and confidence. There are some bad leaders throughout the world who do not have any of these characteristics. They mostly gain their influence by instilling fear as they do not respect other people. They may be successful but along the way they fail. Leadership, which is very influential, can only be done to perfection by leaders who possess the characteristics Contrary to what some may think, leaders are not born but they are made. They develop all these characteristics as they grow to be leaders. In some cases, there are people who are thought to be leaders and they are in fact given the mandate to rule people. Such leaders do not possess such characteristics and if they do, they only posses a few. This does not make them complete leaders and they are likely to be unable to influence the people in their society or jurisdictions positively. In fact, most people do not like to be associated with such leaders. There are some known leaders who are not really leaders in the world today and have always been there in the past. They are known as bad leaders to most. The above characteristics distinguish the good leaders of the bad leaders. Good leaders: President Barrack Obama Good leaders are known to inspire many people in their respective countries and other countries. They have achieved a lot and became role models to many people across the world. There are many people who can be termed as good leaders. One example of such a leader is the current president of the United States, Barrack Obama considered as a good leader for the following reasons. Integrity Integrity is the state of being whole and having strong moral principles. Barrack Obama has been known to have strong moral principles. The President for example stated that he wanted to decrease the number of abortions across the United States. Though He has not gone to the point of stating that it should be completely banned, President Barrack Obama would like to see abortion cases decreased. According to the Obamacare, the president proposed that no abortions would be allowed after twenty weeks of pregnancy. Though there are many abortions that are done before twenty weeks, this would reduce the number of abortions (Andrews, 2012). The President had appointed a committee that was to find out the best time to abort. The committee was composed of many people including scientists, politicians and other experts. One of the scientists who proposed that the abortion be only allowed for pregnancies before eight weeks stated that unborn children can respond t o pain when they are eight to ten weeks old after conception. This was shocking to most people in the committee. The chairman was astonished and stated that it was unfortunate America was faced with controversy regarding abortion. He wondered that they are unable to provide protection for the unborn children, yet it is possible to offer protection to some animals. Frank lamented that late abortions were like transferred infanticide to Human beings and was very worrisome. He was hopeful that the American Judiciary as well as

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Non-cash expenditure Essay Example for Free

Non-cash expenditure Essay CASE 1 The effectiveness of the conceptual framework for the Financial Accounting Standards Board is high. Unfortunately, its effect to outsiders is limited. As already stated, the conceptual framework will aid in the setting of accounting standards. However, only internal persons of the Financial Accounting Standards Board are involved in the standard setting process. Therefore such yardstick will only beneficial to them, because outsiders like accountants will have to abide with the standard issues. Indeed it is a normal trend that standards issued are adjusted in the future due to industrial factors that they omitted to consider or did not tackle properly. An argument in favor of the conceptual framework with respect to outsiders is that it enhanced the credibility of financial statements through the issue of objectives and concepts in such framework (Foster M. J. et al 2001, p 2). CASE 2 a) The cash basis of accounting is based on the premise that a transaction is recorded once cash inflow or cash outflows arises on cash and cash equivalents (Randall H 1999, p 247). On the contrary the accrual basis of accounting is based on the concept that revenue and expenditure are recorded once incurred and not when the cash receipt or payment arises (Randall H. 1999, p 191). For example, if license of a motor vehicle of $1,200 is paid in the beginning of November and the financial year-end is 31st December. Under the cash basis $1,200 is deducted. However, under the accruals basis only expenditure of $200 is recorded representing the expense incurred in November and December. b) The bank should always lend money in good faith. That is the money ought to be lend to persons who are financially capable to repay it in a given time frame. We should bear in mind that the money lent by the bank is coming from the depositors’ funds, which have in turn trusted the bank with their money. A fundamental principle of the code of ethical conduct of professionals states that the decisions taken by such parties should deter from providing harm to other parties and ought respect the rights of others (Association of Accounting Technicians 2007, p 7). Therefore if the bank manager of Ernest Banks knows that if the financial reports of the firm at hand are prepared on an accruals basis, which will eventually lead to lower profits. There is the risk that the financial ability of the company to pay the interest and capital commitments concerning the loan diminish. They should therefore take remedial action in order to mitigate such risk and thus safeguard the resources entrusted by depositors. c) The problem at hand identified in the previous question necessitates that the owner is informed of this issue as soon as possible. They ought to explain that the cash balance reported in the monthly bank statements does not represent the actual profit made by the business enterprise. Such illustration should be made in light of the weaker financial ability of the company to pay interest and capital commitments on the present loan that the firm will face in the nearby future. Since the business is experiencing growth there is still potential for the firm to mitigate the problem at hand. This stems the importance of informing the owner of such issue, who will take remedial action to solve it. However, the bank should refrain from providing specific solutions, since liabilities may arise if such solutions do not solve or possible even worsen the present financial performance of the company. CASE 3 1) The net increase in cash and cash equivalents originating in the cash flow statement is different from the net income portrayed in the income statement due to the different principles followed that where contrasted in the previous question of the former case. The reason for such disparity stem from a number of factors. For example, in the cash flow statement only the cash received from cash sales and debtors is recorded. In the income statement, all the sales incurred are taken into account. Similarly the cash payments for purchases, expenditure and to creditors are shown in the cash flow statement. However, in the income state all expenditure and purchases incurred in that time frame are taken into account (Lewis R. et al 1996, p 317). Non-cash expenditure like provision for depreciation and provision for slow moving stock are deducted from the profit figure. These are omitted from the cash flow statement since they do not represent cash outflows. Further more, capital expenditure incurred and paid during the period is recorded under the investing activities of the cash flow statement. This even though incurred is not portrayed in the income statement, but is recorded in the balance sheet due to its materiality and long-term effect. Hence it will affect cash flow but not net income. This thus clarifies the reason why the net income of $100,000 significantly differs from the actual cash flow balance depicted in the cash flow statement. 2) The operating cash flow, which eventually portrays the cash inflow or outflow from operating activities is very important for the organization, since it should the net cash generated/lost from the firm’s operations. From the differences noted previously it is important that a company not only makes profit but also generates sufficient cash from its operations to be able to meet its financial obligations (Weetman P. 2003, p 185-186). The operating cash flow should be considered as the lifeblood of the firm. Without cash from the operating activities the firm cannot operate for long. It is therefore important that a consistent net cash inflow from operating activities is shown in the financial statements. 3) The sources of cash flow that can be replaceable by new growth are long-term debts that mature and are taken back to finance new growth prospects. Fixed assets classified under investing activities can also be renewed once they finish their possible economic benefits by purchasing similar or better ones. Redeemable share capital, both ordinary and preference can also be renewed by another issue of such finance instruments (Lewis R. et al 1996, p 321). 4) The first basic solution of improving cash flow in view of the cash issue outlined is by focusing on sales and inventory management. By increasing the inventory turnover and diminishing the money tied up in stock by reducing stock levels can be useful remedies in order to free up some cash and enhance the liquidity of the James Spencer Corporation. Cash sales can also be boosted through the introduction of cash discounts. It is also pertinent that present debtors are properly chased by the credit control department to ensure that cash is collected on time (Bernabucci B.2005). Financial managers can also alleviate cash by reducing the debtors collection period through effective credit control policies and procedures put in practice and increase the creditors collection period from the present and potential suppliers. The factoring services provided by factor companies can be another viable solution to enhance cash flow from debtors. Factoring basically comprises the forwarding of a debt to a factor company at a reduced rate than the face value of such debt in exchange of a cash receipt of that account receivable (Ccassociates). For example a debtor of $10,000 of Company A is transferred to a factor company at 85%. Company A will receive $8,500 from such account receivable and then it is the responsibility of the factor company to collect the $10,000 from the trade debtor. James Spencer Corporation can also cushion its cash by either opting for an overdraft facility or increasing the present overdraft. This will act as a buffer against any unforeseen events that may weaken the cash flow of the firm. Even though bank overdraft is payable on demand by the bank, such debt medium is extremely flexible. This is due to the fact that the company can utilize how much of the debt it seems fit (Washington State University). For example if the overdraft facility is of $50,000, the company may take only $20,000 of such overdraft. References: Association of Accounting Technician (2007). Professional Ethics. Berkshire: Kaplan Publishing. Bernabucci B. (2005). Improving you Cash Flow Problems, Entrepreneur. com (on line). Available from: http://www. entrepreneur. com/money/moneymanagement/financialanalysis/article79084. html (Accessed 15th November 2007). Ccassociates. The Factoring Solution (on line). Available from: http://www. ccassociates. com/factoring_solution_accounts_receivable_factoring_explained. html (Accessed 15th November 2007). Foster M. J. ; Johnson L. T. (2001). Why does the FASB have a Conceptual Framework? Financial Accounting Standards Board (on line). Available from: http://www. fasb. org/articlesreports/conceptual_framework_uti_aug_2001. pdf (Accessed 16th November 2007) IAS 17 (2000). Leases. London: International Accounting Standards Committee. International Accounting Standards (2000). Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements. London: International Accounting Standards Committee. Lewis R. ; Pendrill D. (1996). Advanced Financial Accounting. Fifth Edition. London: Pitman Publishing. Washington State University. Short Term Sources of Finance (on line). Available from: http://cbdd. wsu. edu/kewlcontent/cdoutput/TOM505/page36. htm (Accessed 15th November 2007). Weetman P. (2003). Financial and Management Accounting. Third Edition. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Childrens Needs And Violence Against Children

Childrens Needs And Violence Against Children à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾I do not believe in a child worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ I believe that child should be taught from the very first that the whole world is his world, that adult and child should share one worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Pearl S. Buck The aim of the following thesis is to present the image of a child in Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. On the strength of this novel, the author will attempt to discuss the importance of a childs psychological, physiological and emotional needs, and ways of their fulfilment in the process of a childs development. Children are innocent and defenceless human beings and to ensure their safe and proper growth, they need to be provided with an environment conducive to their healthy development. Adults often overlook the importance of their childs needs, they are simply unaware of their existence, and in consequence, children mature into troubled and unstable individuals. The lack of parental support, which often results in neglect, abuse and childs humiliation, may in fact seriously injure the childs psyche. Most Charles Dickens novels feature an image of a child Pip, Oliver Twist, David Copperfield; in his portrayals Dickens argues that children and adults perceive the world differently. In spite of their limited knowledge and experience children are acute and sensitive observers. In his novels, Dickens shows children, who struggle with the adversities of adult life, children who have no childhood and must survive against the hostile society of the Victorian England caught in the frenzy of the Industrial Revolution. The author relies often on his own experiences, his childhood was disturbed by the tragedies in his own family, which gives his novels a sense of authenticity. Charles Dickens was born on 7th February 1812 in Portsmouth in England as a son of John and Elizabeth Dickens. His fathers irresponsibility and lack of ambitions were the reasons why his family situation was often uncertain. He was always in debt and, as a consequence, in 1824, when Charles was only twelve years old, his father was imprisoned, together with his family. However, through his uncles instigation, young Charles found employment at a newly opened blacking factory and was spared from the prisons sentence. Michael Slater, Dickenss biographer, shows how this experience influenced small Dickens: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Dickens leaves no doubt as to the degree of the psychological and emotional earthquake suffered by his twelve-year-old self: It is wonderful to me how I could have been so easily cast away at such an ageà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ No advice, no counsel, no encouragement, no consolation, no support, from any one [à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦] I might easily have been, for any care that was taken of me, a little robber or a little vagabond.  [1]   Dickens is an expert at childrens feelings and emotions, and through his works, he urges adults to be sensitive towards their fragile personalities. His novels, and his child characters, witness the abuse of children in the Victorian Period. His works were to give voice to children who desperately needed help and who rarely were able to communicate their needs and even more seldom obtained the help they needed. The first chapter of the following thesis is divided into four parts. In the first part, the author will describe the importance of childrens psychological needs necessary to their proper growth. The emphasis will be placed upon the needs fulfilment methods and the consequences of not fulfilling them: a lack of a childs psychic stability, problems in adolescence, etc. In the second part of Chapter One, the author will discuss violence against children in the Victorian Period and its consequences. On this occasion, the ideas of a Polish psychologist, Aleksandra Sobkowska will be presented in the context of the recent findings of New Psychology. Still in Chapter One, I will introduce Abraham Maslows psychological theory of the hierarchy of human needs. At the end of the same chapter, the author of the thesis will present the figure of Charles Dickens as a victim of the Victorian epochs Industrial Revolution, a victim of social injustice and economic deprivation, a victim of childhood i nterrupted. The Second Chapter will focus on the characterization of and the role of children in the Victorian society in the period of the Industrial Revolution. On that occasion, Oliver Twist, Dickenss portrayal of children in the historical and socio-economic context, will be discussed in detail and placed in the context of the Maslowian theory of the hierarchy of needs. In this chapter, the author will also ponder on Dickens involvement in the struggle against a childs exploitation; it is not clear whether in his books, the author aimed at evoking sympathy for the children and their plight, and thus he wrote mainly for the adult readership; or attempted to elucidate children on the causes of their unjust and despicable conditions. Chapter One Childrens needs and violence against children. The aim of the following chapter is to present the importance of needs in childrens psychological growth. In the course of Chapter One, the author of the thesis will refer to the foundations of Abraham Maslows theory of the hierarchy of needs. The author will also discuss different types of violence against children as the most detrimental element in a childs psychological development. Finally, Charles Dickens life will be placed in the context of the Victorian period. Childrens psychological needs Psychological needs of a human being are of great importance first and foremost for children, however, adults very often forget about it. Satisfying a childs material needs such as clothing, feeding, etc, they are convinced that they adequately fulfil their parental responsibility. In the light of modern psychology such an attitude is viewed critically. Though easily convinced that material goods are all they need, children become increasingly dissatisfied. Disturbing signals in our daily life children committing serious crimes, children becoming addicted to alcohol and drugs, adolescents dropping out of school; are all but proof of the existence of an area in a childs psyche that remains overlooked and neglected. Children differ significantly from one another; therefore, each child has to be treated separately whether it is by its parents or educators. Adults usually realize far too late how important they are for their childrens development, generally when their children start misbehaving and cause problems.  [2]  In order to prevent such a situation, it is necessary to study the mechanism of the needs formation; then consciously new and positive needs a need to discover, to know, to feel good about oneself can be created. As far as the mechanism of creating new needs is concerned, they are formed first through satisfying the needs that already exist. It is very important to offer children the opportunity to develop new and valuable needs, and rewarding responses of the environment have a great influence on childrens psychic growth. One of the main needs that are worth mentioning here is the need of emotional contact between a mother and a child. At the beginning, this contact has a more physical character, but in time, the character of this contact changes. It has a more psychological sense and needs another form of fulfilment.  [3]  Parents are able to create proper conditions to form a childs personality; to achieve this aim, parents must continuously observe and recognize their childs needs and try to understand them. Many factors have an influence on a harmonious course of a childs development, including all psychophysical processes, and affect the childs future stance point of view, and the way she or he is perceived by the society.  [4]   Human needs are divided into: material, biological, organic and psychological ones. Generally, psychological needs are additionally divided into: A need of safety shaped in ontogenesis A cognitive need An activity need A need of independence and personal development An emotional and social interaction need A sense of belonging and acceptance need A possession need b. Violence against children as the negation of proper development A child who is harmed is the one who is suffering due to improper behaviour of other people, mainly parents and guardians, and who experiences injustice and a sense of powerlessness. This process, whether intentional or unintentional, and resulting from adults actions, may have a negative influence on a childs physical or psychological development.  [5]   Dickens stories abound in episodes involving both psychological and physical abuse among children. Children rob one another of dignity and belongings. They accumulate anger and frustration in themselves. They are weak and dominated by adults and find abusing their equals or weaker ones as the only possible way of venting their anger. Violence against children leads unavoidably to violence in children. This too is a result of a childhood interrupted, of a thwarted development. Violence against children is the most perverted form of violence; children are defenceless and innocent human beings at a formative stage, who are susceptible to a physical and to psychological injury. Though violence may reside in children themselves, for example, in unwanted, problematic, chronically ill or disabled children; in the majority of cases, children are victims of violence perpetrated by adults. Violence occurs in many different circumstances, and may have different forms, but generally three groups of reasons for its occurrence may be distinguished: violence in children directed against others (children as well as adults) is a result of the childrens frustration with their own health (disabled and chronically ill children), with their social and indirectly economic status (orphaned children, children of alcoholics, etc.) and, importantly, often is a consequence of war; violence in parents directed at children which often is a result of social pathologies dysfunctional families; violence being a result of a familys social isolation owed to their religion, ethnicity, social or economic status, etc. According to Aleksandra Sobkowska, a Polish psychologist, there is a conventional division of violence against children based on its type: physical, psychological and sexual abuse. Negligence of children is sometimes considered to be the mildest form of violence, however, it is most common, and it is extremely harmful and just like any other form of psychical abuse beatings, torture, etc. extends its effects into the sphere of a childs psyche. Therefore, the distinction between physical and psychological abuse, at least in terms of their lasting effects psychical and psychological scars overlap and blur. In Sobkowskas view, psychical abuse of children has cognitive, emotional and behavioural consequences a childs abuse syndrome may be manifested by: a lack of a sense of security a lack of a sense of belonging to the closest people a lack of or low self-esteem spiritual loneliness a feeling of being harmed a feeling and consciousness of guilt and shame difficulty in forming relationships. In Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist, there are many examples of child abuse and violence ranging from the very basic lack of alimentation: Unfortunately for the experimental philosophy of the female to whose protecting care Oliver Twist was delivered over, a similar result usually attended the operation of her system; for at the very moment when a child had contrived to exist upon the smallest possible portion of the weakest possible food, it did perversely happen in eight and half cases out of ten, either that it sickened from want and cold, or fell into another world, and there gathered to the fathers which it had never known in this.  [6]   through terrible living conditions; An unfinished coffin on black tressels, which stood in the middle of the shop, looked so gloomy and death-like that a cold tremble came over him, every time his eyes wandered in the direction of the dismal object: from which he almost expected to see some frightful form slowly rear its head, to drive him mad with terror. The recess beneath the counter in which his flock mattress was thrust, looked like a grave.  [7]   resulting in a sense of fear and spiritual loneliness: He was alone in a strange place; and we all know how chilled and desolate the best of us will sometimes feel in such a situation. The boy had no friends to care for, or to care for him. The regret of no recent separation was fresh in his mind; the absence of no loved and well-remembered face sank heavily into his heart.  [8]   Psychological violence is a conscious destruction or significant limitation on a childs possibility of proper development. Ranging from insults, as can be seen in the following episode from Oliver Twist: Get downstairs, little bag o bones. With this the undertakers wife opened a side door, and pushed Oliver down a steep flight of stairs into a stone cell, damp and dark, forming the ante-room to the coal-cellar, and denominated the kitchen.  [9]   It is hard to draw any conclusive ideas as to what future awaited Oliver, and whether his childhood filled with pain brought to bear on his life as an adult. There is a note to the preface of Charles Dickens Oliver Twist which say: It tells the story of an unfortunate orphan boy from his early years in the harsh environment of the workhouse, to his struggle for survival in the dangerous world outside its gates.  [10]   A parallel between the story of Oliver Twist, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ a boy who dares to ask for more  [11]  and the life of Charles Dickens is evident. As a young boy, Dickens was forced to work in one of Britains infamous sweatshops, or as they were often referred to, children factories. His fathers debts put the whole family in prison; only young Charles was spared his freedom, however, in exchange for hard labour in a blacking workshop. In a way similar to most children from poor neighbourhoods of London, Dickens suffered pains of poverty hunger and all things most children his age would take for granted. Hunger haunted little Charles, something that is echoed in the story of Oliver Twist, but what pained him more was his hopelessness against the odds set by the cruel society of the 19th century Britain. Britain was undergoing a period of transformation; the Industrial Revolution was at its peak; many people fled the impoverished countryside and settled in big cities. There, they we re exploited by the capitalist industrialists. Slavery was by then outlawed in Britains overseas colonies, importing cheap labour was out of the question, yet the growing economy needed hands, many hands, inexpensive hands. In such circumstances, children became a commodity cheap and easy to manage. Factories soon filled with little children whose parents, all the while working themselves to near death, still failed to make ends meet. This is an era of Britains great economic expansion; this is an era that witnessed the birth of communism. Britain was getting rich, or at least the rich were getting richer; for the rest the society was falling apart. Many children faced a very bleak future; orphaned (mostly through abandonment); deprived of any possibility for social advancement, just like Oliver Twist, veered onto the dangerous path of crime. Dickens resisted the temptations of becoming a criminal; perhaps, in that sense, he was lucky; his contacts with Londons underworld remained luckily within the confines of his fantasy. I might easily have been, for any care that was taken of me, a little robber or a little vagabond  [12]  Dickens, a literary giant of the Victorian England, was first and foremost, its victim. As a child, he suffered all the deprivations shared by most of his books characters Nicholas Nickleby, Oliver Twist, Pip and David Copperfield; whose lives stories became a great testimony of Britains shameful past a past tainted by abuse against the innocent and the weakest children. c. Maslows hierarchy of needs This part of the thesis is based on the psychological theory authored by Abraham Maslow. Among other things, he wrote about human nature being good or at least neutral. It cannot be assumed that a child is born with a bad nature.  [13]  Because of its pessimistic, negative and restricted conception of human nature, Maslow became very critical of psychology. Unlike other scientists, he conducted his tests on healthy people, people without, for example, brain injuries; and he reached a number of new and innovative conclusions concerning personality. He claimed that psychology is much more occupied with peoples weaknesses rather than strengths; that the main focus of psychological studies is sin, and virtue tends to be omitted.  [14]   Maslows hierarchy of needs is represented by the following diagram: Maslow recognises, and illustrates his notion by means of a pyramid, that human needs can be divided into five levels, four of which represent deficiency needs (referred to also as basic needs) and are associated with human physiology. Only when those needs are satisfied, a human develops a need of self-actualization (referred to also as growth needs). d. Society in the Victorian Age Dickens hero, Oliver Twist, lived in a difficult time characterised by changes and the resulting serious crisis in the politics, economy and religious life. Victorians expected progress, rapid changes that were to improve their daily lives; apart from the elite, life in the nineteenth century was very hard for most of simple citizens, especially for children. Many peasants, driven away from the countryside by the prospects of better lives in the cities, fell victim of industrial exploitation and the capitalist system of economy. Cities grew in population too rapidly, forcing many to live in squalid neighbourhoods filled with filth and crime. Urbanization meant more places of work, but the cost of living in big cities often exceeded an average familys means. Families were large or too large; people lived in overcrowded houses in hand-to-mouth conditions. Industrial production was carried on at great risks and causing suffering of men, women and children. Britains status as the worksho p of the world was achieved at a great human cost  [15]  . People including small children worked fifteen or sixteen hours a day in, most of the time, unbearable conditions. The majority of people the so-called working class, which ironically included the unemployed, lived in the scruffiest of households. The industrialists treated the less fortunate, especially children, simply, and only, like objects, manpower. Children were exploited more than adults, because they never dared to ask for more. What is more, parents willingly agreed to this exploitation, even of very small children (often younger than six years of age), because they, too, could earn a few pennies. This extra income for starving families was at times a matter of life and death. Children employed in industry, suffered and often fell ill, at times irreversibly. Their childhood was taken away from them, but what is more, the precarious working and employment conditions, often forced them into the streets where they begged or stole to survive. Most children were denied the stability of having a home, being abandoned by their parents. Sometimes they were subjected to violence or solitude, being under-nourished or even starving, covered with rags, sleeping in empty cellars. Deprived of love and support from adults, they were neglected and lonely among others. The working class children had no rights and their hardship earned them no respect. People in Victorian England believed they were doing what was best for their children. But they were gripped by an idea which was widespread at that time that children were empty vessels, containing nothing worthwhile until filled with what adults judged best.  [16]   Dickens in his novels depicted the Victorian societys major problems. The writer portrayed the society in all its variety, touching all their problems but the theme to which he always returned, was the family, childhood, injustice, inequality, crime, corruption, scandals, poverty, as well as the suffering of children. Whatever he wrote was written with passion, because he experienced seeing life, from the point of view of the poor people and abused children. In his time, few people understood children as well as Dickens did, and he was the first writer who described childrens thoughts and feelings capturing the way they spoke, behaved, and suffered. Chapter two Childrens needs and violence against children based on Dickens novel Oliver Twist. The aim of the following chapter is to present the connection between a childs needs and life in the Victorian Age on the basis of Dickens novel Oliver Twist. Oliver Twist is the first novel in which Dickens speaks out against social injustice and an inadequate economic system that condoned the plight of the poorest, yet the largest, segment of British society. His, is not a portrait of a happy and harmonious family, but a debt-ridden, broken family where children, unless employed in Britains worst workshops, are viewed as a burden. The author tries to show terrible conditions in workhouses where poor people were forced to live and work if they could not pay their debts. In his novel Oliver Twist, Dickens also draws a critical picture of charitable foundations and their involvement in childrens orphanages. Additionally, Dickens sheds light on Londons dangerous criminal underworld. The main character of the novel, Oliver, is a neglected, illegitimate child. He does not know his father and his mother died at his birth. He is brought up as an orphan in cruel conditions in an orphanage typical of the Victorian Age. This small and lonely child is drawn into the world of brutality and violence. The fact that he does not have parents increased his loneliness and difficulties in life because he is deprived of their support which is very important, especially at the beginning of everyones life. Having a normal life is important for a child, but for Oliver that proved an unattainable dream. Oliver spends the first nine years of his life in a badly run home for young orphans and later he is transferred to a workhouse for adults. There, not only does he lack means to secure himself a decent upbringing, but is constantly short of the essentials such as sufficient amount of food, a room to sleep or clean clothes. When he is nine, he is still a child and he does not understa nd the world around him, especially his own status. Once, he asks an adult what it means to be an orphan: Boy, said the gentleman in the high chair, listen to me. You know you are an orphan, I suppose? Whats that, sir? inquired poor Oliver. The boy is a fool I thought he was, said the gentleman in a white waistcoat.  [17]   Oliver is afraid of adults; he does not understand why strangers decide about his future and his life, and in their presence he often trembles and cries. One of the most important and memorable images in the novel is the moment when Oliver feels extreme hunger and asks for something more to eat: Please, sir. I want some more.  [18]  This famous scene is symbolic in that sense that it expresses Olivers revolt against his situation. He does not understand that such behaviour is unacceptable in the workhouse and he is beaten as a result and then put up for sale, like an object, not a human being. Oliver acts against the rules because the situation in the workhouse is abnormal; his basic needs are not satisfied. The living conditions in the workhouses of the 19th century Britain were very severe and often these harbingers of modern day sweatshops resembled more prisons than houses. The treatment of children was terribly bad, some of them even starved to death. The sufferings of children in the Victorian Age indicate that their basic needs were not satisfied. The fundamental, basic needs which are essential for our survival, such as proper nourishment, a place to sleep, warmth were not met then. According to Maslow, food occupies the lowest level of the pyramid in the hierarchy of needs, and belongs to the very primitive group of needs, which are essential for survival; refusing proper nourishment to hungry people, especially children is the negation of humanity. What is more, Oliver Twist is denied safety and stability; he is an unloved and lonely child thrown into unsympathetic adult world, where he lacks parental love, affection and protection. In Maslowian theory, Oliver is denied access to the second developmental level and his need to feel safe remains unfulfilled. At the beginning, Oliver is not aware of his situation; gradually, however, he comes to realize his standing: I am a very little boy, sir; and it is so- so à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ So what? inquired Mr Bumble in amazement. So lonely, sir! So very lonely! Cried the child [à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦].  [19]   This small boy feels he should have some rights as a human being and he seeks love. It is only natural for a boy like Oliver to look for love and a sense of belonging, a feeling that gives people a sense of stability. Again, the fundamental need, the third level of the Maslowian pyramid representing the hierarchy of needs necessary for a childs proper physiological and psychological development remains unfulfilled. Although he leaves the workhouse, his circumstances never improve; he moves in with Mr. Sowerberry, an undertaker. Subjected to moral and physical oppression, Oliver continues to feel lonely, cold and abandoned; in his new home he has no place to sleep: Then come with me, said Mrs Sowerberry, taking up a dim dirty lamp, and leading the way upstairs; your beds under the counter. You dont mind sleeping among the coffins, I suppose? But it doesnt much matter whether you do or dont, for you cant sleep anywhere else.  [20]   Another boy, named Noah Claypole, who too is a worker at Sowerberrys workshop, constantly abuses Oliver, but the main character endures his fate without a word of complaint. One day however, acting on an impulse, Oliver fights off Noahs attacks. He fights in defence of his mothers name but despite his innocence, Oliver is severely punished. This situation illustrates the Maslows notion of violence being a result of a thwarted development in an environment where a childs basic needs remain unfulfilled; violence and other forms of anti-social behaviour are a consequence. In other words, a child who is deprived of an opportunity to fulfil his needs uses aggression, turns to aggression; he/she does not act like a normal child. This moment in the novel marks another important transition; Oliver demands to be respected he reacts with violence against the insults used with regard to his mother an action that points to the fourth level of the Maslowian pyramid, the need of esteem. Oliver decides to escape because he refuses to endure his treatment. He chooses London hoping to change his life for better. In spite of being exhausted and hungry; he does not give up and is still full of hope and determined. He meets Dodger, who offers him a helping hand. Unaware, Oliver joins a gang of juvenile pick-pockets, run by a Jewish emigrant named Fagin. Dodger and other young boys, and now Oliver, roam the streets of London stealing, when they can, hanging out, laughing. Fagins gang creates an authentic society and provides these unwanted boys with security and a sense of belonging. Oliver has never known this kind of life; he is drawn to it to gain respect amongst peers, but also to feel accepted, relied on, and needed. At the beginning, Oliver does not realise that he has joined a criminal group. He does not understand the whole situation but tries to be a quick learner and to acquire new skills, i.e. pick pocketing. However, because he has little experience, or simply because he still is a naÃÆ' ¯ve little boy, he gets caught and arrested. Fortunately for Oliver, Mr. Brownlow, one of the gangs victims, recognizes the boys innocence, exonerates the boy during the investigation and takes him into his custody. Oliver leads now a better life, at last, but he is not sure if his benefactor will not one day send him back into the streets of London. He asks Mr. Brownlow: Oh, dont tell me you are going to send me away, sir, pray! [à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦] Dont turn me out of doors to wander in the streets again. Let me stay here and be a servant. Dont send me back to the wretched place I came from. Have a mercy upon a poor boy, sir!  [21]   Mr. Brownlow, however, reassures the boy of his true devotion to his upbringing: My dear child, said the old gentleman, moved by the warmth of Olivers sudden appeal, you need not be afraid of my deserting you, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ã‚  [22

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Kneeling During the National Anthem: An Opinion Piece

Kneeling During the National Anthem: An Opinion Piece A Bad Combination The NFL represents â€Å"The National Football League,† which contains thirty-two professional American teams (â€Å"NFL Football Teams,† para 1). Over the past year to present time, there has been a lot of controversy within the league concerning a major political issue with select NFL players kneeling during the playing of the national anthem before kickoff. Kneeling is executed to represent a form of silent protest. The NFL players who are kneeling believe that there are prevailing issues in the United States that need to be brought to the public’s attention. According to the philosopher, Boxill, protest is meant to not only stop the injustice from happening, but to also show self-respect (Boxill, para 1). The injustices that the NFL players are silently protesting against during the playing of the national anthem, are police brutality and racial inequalities occurring in the United States. The issues behind the protest should be addressed, but the way the NFL is allowing players to kneel during a time which celebrates patriotism and the symbolic representation of our country, should not be allowed. The protest first began in the NFL when a player from the San Francisco 49ers sat on the benches during the playing of the national anthem at preseason games (Mindock, para 3). Later in the season, he changed to kneeling during the national anthem while his other teammates remained standing (para 4). Ever since the first player, Colin Kaepernick, kneeled during the anthem, it has started a widespread protest encouraging other players in the NFL to join. The reasons behind the protest, such as police brutality and racial inequalities, are extensive issues in the United States. According to the mapping of police violence, police have killed 1,079 people in the United States this year. Of these 1,079 people, 26 percent of those killed were of the African American race, which represents 13 percent of the American population (â€Å"Mapping Police Violence†). These statistics are well known and alarming to most. The NFL players felt that something needed to be done in order to bring the injustices to the public’s attention. As mentioned above, the protest itself is genuine, but the way it is being executed is exceptionally wrong and troubling. My first argument, is that the form of protest the NFL players are using shows disrespect towards the members of the military and the American flag because the national anthem is played during sporting events to display patriotism for the wars that were fought. The national anthem was written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812, which was a conflict between Great Britain and the United States, killing roughly 15,000 Americans (â€Å"Star Spangled Banner Lyrics,† para 2). By kneeling, the players are showing a lack of patriotism for our country and this draws attention away from their concept of protesting. Under Title 36 in the United States Code, Section 301 states, â€Å"all other person’s present should face the flag and stand at attention with their right hand over the heart, and men not in uniform, if applicable, should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart† (â€Å"United States Code,† para 2). Although there is no federal punishment for violating the United States code, it shows overall disrespect towards the country. Many soldiers have lost their lives fighting for the freedom of the United States, and to military personnel, it may come off as very discourteous. The first argument not only enrages the majority who serve in the military, but it also upsets the fans. The disrespectfulness fans perceive from the way the protest is performed, can lead to unintended consequences. Protesting in the public eye may lead to boycotts and un-peaceful events. Ever since the protest began, more security has been needed at the games to protect fans from violence that might occur due to the kneeling that takes place (â€Å"Refusing to Stand for the National Anthem,† para 8). Also, fans have been committing arson by burning the jerseys of players who promote the protest to show dislike (para 8). Not only is the kneeling making the audience feel uneasy, but causing them to lash out to also be heard. My second argument, is that not standing up during the national anthem is a very ineffective way to promote a protest of injustice. Kneeling during the national anthem catches the viewers’ attention, but can be a major distraction (para 6). It can be a distraction to their teammates and can also cause internal team controversy for those who don’t agree with the style of protest. Not standing for the national anthem before the game, can get in the way of the main message they are trying to protest, which is police brutality and racial injustices. The national anthem stands for men and women who have fought for our country (para 5). Once people see a player kneel, it is hard for them to get past the perceived disrespect for the military personnel of the United States and listen to the deeper concerns of the protest. Many fans get distracted by the action the players are performing, not even realizing there is a bigger cause behind the action. Not only does it distract the players and the audience, but it takes away from the overall football game starting minutes after the kneeling occurs. In addition, the protest draws attention away from the actual reason people bought tickets, which was to view and enjoy the football game between two opposing teams. There are many objections that you could use to rebuttal against the first argument. I think the best objection is that if one believes the United States is not holding up the foundations the country was established on, not standing during the playing of the national anthem is reasonable. The reason the protest was executed by kneeling, was because Kaepernick felt that his country wasn’t showing justice for all and was oppressing African Americans (para 3). He did not want to show pride in a country and flag that undermined police brutality and racial injustices, acting like these were not issues in the United States. Many other players now kneel during the national anthem for this reason. The players are not purposely trying to offend the military, police, or others who find it disrespectful, they are trying to bring recognition to the issues, so other people can be informed. Raising awareness of social injustice is their main target, not dishonoring those who have risked their lives for America (para 3). Another major objection to the first argument could be that kneeling during the national anthem is protected by the First Amendment. The football players are exercising their constitutional right to peacefully protest, bringing the issues of police brutality and racial injustices to the public’s attention. Legally, there was nothing wrong with Kaepernick’s form of protest. The players of the NFL have the right to speak out and make a statement about something they believe is unfair. The First Amendment states, â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances† (Staff, para 1). In addition, it is an individual’s choice whether or not he or she wishes to participate in standing for the national anthem. With the freedom of speech, comes the right to express your opinion peacefully with either direct words or symbolic actions without diminution, and that’s exactly what the NFL players are doing (â€Å"What Does Free Speech Mean?,† para 1). The second argument emphasized that kneeling during the national anthem is not an effective way to promote and protest the injustice occurring in the United States. A possible response to this argument could be that kneeling is an effective way to promote the issues because it easily grabs people’s eyes on a platform that is viewed by millions of Americans. Kneeling is an unexpected action taken by the NFL players and it shocks the audience which makes them pay attention to the issues (para 6). This sparked other players to join Kaepernick in the kneeling because they realized the public would react, good or bad. Also, it created a conversation on social media and in the news. The protest spread like wildfire, and people were widely talking about it. On social media, there were those who took the NFL players’ side and others who did not agree with the form of protest. By grabbing the fans’ attention, they are able to speak out and voice their opinions on racial issues that needed to be displayed. Now that the public is more aware of the police brutality and racial injustices, actions can be taken to try to prevent those injustices from happening further. The objection to the first argument was that refusing to stand during the anthem was justified if you feel that your country is not holding up the ideals it was founded on. The other objection to the first argument was that the right to peacefully protest is protected by the First Amendment. A response to these two objections could be that yes, NFL players are protected by the First Amendment, but if they are going to protest it should be done respectfully. The national anthem is repeatedly used to honor those who lost their lives or those who were injured while fighting for the United States. It is not something that should be belittled by a protest against totally separate prevailing issues. You gain self-respect from protesting injustices done to you (para 1). Through this form of protest, the NFL players are gaining self-respect, but are alienating others such as select military personnel and viewers who don’t agree with kneeling. The players are utilizing the First Amendment to proceed with their protest, and therefore can’t fully state that the United States is not holding up its ideals which is the reason why they kneel. As for the second argument, the objection was that kneeling is an effective way to protest because it makes others notice and is widely seen by many. A response to this could be that kneeling does grab people’s attention, but it takes away from the game NFL players are paid to play. Adding politics to a professional sport, creates even more tension and possibly the loss of fans. There are more effective ways to protest that are more serene and reduce unintended consequences. The players could conduct a protest that can be heard and seen outside of the football game, or even spread the issues another way during the game. Several other ways the NFL players can speak out about the police brutality and racial injustice in the United States could be by wearing a piece of clothing, making a speech, or dedicating a color to the cause. Another alternative could be the NFL players kneeling before the national anthem playing begins and then standing back up, which shows solidarity without being divisive. If they used one of the other ways mentioned, people would not feel disrespected and attention would still be drawn to the present issues. The protest against police brutality and racial injustices began by one NFL player kneeling during the playing of the national anthem. This created tension between fans and the players. Now, there are over 200 players kneeling for these issues and the number of players participating in the protest is growing. There are some who think the kneeling is justified and others who believe it is disrespecting our country and those who fought for the United States. Police brutality and racial injustice are major issues occurring throughout the country, and it is important for others to speak out on the issues they believe are corrupt. Due to the First Amendment, people have the right to freedom of speech with includes peaceful protest, which is what the NFL players are executing. Although protesting by kneeling during the national anthem is viewed by many as disrespectful and can cause viewers to have negative thoughts towards the NFL, players are proceeding with the protest. There is a significant reason behind the cause, but the form of protest could be conducted in a more efficient and less controversial way. The kneeling should not be allowed during the national anthem, so that there is less tension and miscommunication between the public and players. The protest should be executed in a different way in order to only draw full attention to the issues at hand. Works Cited Boxill, Bernard R. â€Å"Self-Respect and Protest.†Ã‚  Self-Respect and Protest, vol. 6, no. 1, 15 Feb. 2017, pp. 1–13. Accessed 3 Dec. 2017. â€Å"NFL Football Teams Official Sites of all 32 NFL Teams.†Ã‚, 2017, Accessed 12 Dec. 2017. â€Å"Police have killed 1,079 people in the U.S. this year.†Ã‚  Mapping Police Violence, 4 Dec. 2017, Accessed 3 Dec. 2017. â€Å"Refusing to Stand for the National Anthem: Top 3 Pros and Cons.† ProConorg Headlines,, 27 Sept. 2017, Accessed 3 Dec. 2017. Staff, LII. â€Å"First Amendment.†Ã‚  LII / Legal Information Institute, 5 Feb. 2010, Accessed 3 Dec. 2017. â€Å"Star Spangled Banner Lyrics.† Star Spangled Banner Lyrics and Meaning ***, 2017, Accessed 10 Dec. 2017. Mindock, Clark. â€Å"Taking a knee: Why are NFL players protesting and when did they start to kneel?†Ã‚  The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 25 Sept. 2017, Accessed 12 Dec. 2017. â€Å"United States Code.†Ã‚  OLRC Home, United States House of Representatives,[emailprotected]/subtitle1/partA/chapter3&edition=prelim. Accessed 3 Dec. 2017. â€Å"What Does Free Speech Mean?† United States Courts, courts/educational-resources/about-educational-outreach/activity-resources/what-does. Accessed 11 Dec. 2017.

Monday, August 19, 2019

The Historic Turn in Western Thought :: Philosophy Kant History Papers

The Historic Turn in Western Thought Most philosophers have noted the linguistic turn at the end of the nineteenth century. Few, if any, have noted the historical turn in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Living in a time of anxiety in which the universe and life present problems to be solved, the problem for this paper can be stated as: Why was history so imprtant until recently, and is narrative so important now? I examine the advent of irrationalism in order to provide some explanation for the substitution of story for history. Some find the origins of modern humanism in Giovanni Pico della Mirandola's contention that human beings have been given the wonderfully unique ability to choose for themselves. But Pico still limited the options for humankind to provisions of the traditional hierarchical ontology of the Middle Ages. Thus, for him, the journey of humankind to itself was not a historical one, but rather the choice between a vertical descent into vegetative or brute state of being, or a mysti cal ascent along the hierarchy to the angelic or even divine level. But Modern thought relinquished this hierarchy in favour of a human centred teleology, framing the ontology in between nature (individuality, non-rationality) as the origin and culture (reason, the social) as its outcome. Thus the ontology became historicised from Defoe, Lessing, Rousseau, through Kant down to Marx. In irrationalism this became a mythical movement remaining within the non-rational, as in Nietzsche, and Mussolini, and finally story, as in Virginia Woolff, and films such as Dead Poets Society and A River Runs Through It, or New Age neo-romanticism. From Hierarchy to History Most philosophers have noted the linguistic turn at the end of the nineteenth century. Few have noted the historic turn in the late seventeen early eighteenth century: With modern humanism the traditional, normative, hierarchical ontology was replaced by a human centered ontology. This ontology was teleologically human centered — it focused in humankind and its (progressive) cultural mastery of nature. Thus the culture-nature dialectic became the new historical ontology. The transformation of a hierarchical ontology (focused in the supreme good) into a human-centered teleological one, can be characterized as the historic turn. Modern humanism substituted the Medieval supratemporal focus on the divine with a focus in human rationality itself. Knowing full well that humans beings are factually not in rational control of the world, this focus was constructed in terms of a historical teleology.

Religious and Artistic Sites of Venice Essay -- Place Geography Italy

Religious and Artistic Sites of Venice The masterpieces of four visual artists, Bellini (1430-1516), Titian (1485-1576), Tintoretto (1518-1594), and Tiepolo (1696-1770), dominate the religious and artistic sites found in the island city of Venice. The city is divided into six districts. Each contains historical sites, however, the most notable are located in the districts of San Marco, San Polo, and Dorsoduro that border the Grand Canal. The artistic and religious sites of Venice are appreciated as part of the island?s historical past, as well as infused in its everyday present. One symbol of the importance of art in Venetian life is the lion of Venice. The lion honors the patron saint of Venice, St. Mark. It can be seen in many different poses including a peaceful, playful stance, an impassive guard, a majestic, stately lion, or even a forceful, warlike lion. The lion, like art and religion, reflects the spirit of Venice. San Marco District Saint Mark?s Basilica Since 830 AD, the basilica has housed the bones of St. Mark which were taken from Alexandria, Egypt and given at the Port of Olivolo to the D oge Giustiniano Particiaco. Mosaics in the basilica depict this event as bones being hidden under barrels of pork to keep Muslims away. Mark was patron saint of Alexandria and then became patron saint of Venice. The emblem of the patron saint is the winged lion with a sword and a book with the words Pax Tibi Marce Evangelista Meus, Peace to You, Oh Mark, My Evangelist. The church was built with eastern inspiration with its oriental domes and lustrous mosaics. This is an example of the connection between Venice and Byzantium, which protected Venice from Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire. The church contains four thousand sq... ...artistic sites of Venice leave a lasting impression for all who visit. Works Cited Crivellari, Domenico, and Maria Da Villa Urbani, eds. Basilica di San Marco. Procuratoria di San Marco Venezia. 2003. Girard-Sharp, Lisa, et al. Venice. New York: APA Publications, 1999. Openshaw, Gene, and Rick Steves, eds. Venice 2004. California: Avalon Travel, 2003. Peggy Guggenheim Collection. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 2003. Pioch, Nicolas. ?Titian.? WebMuseum, Paris. 2002. Pioch, Nicolas. ?Bellini.? WebMuseum, Paris. 2002. Rossi, Gerald. ?Il Tintoretto.? Catholic Encyclopedia. 2003. Steves, Rick. Italy 2002. California: Avalon Travel, 2002. Religious and Artistic Sites of Venice Essay -- Place Geography Italy Religious and Artistic Sites of Venice The masterpieces of four visual artists, Bellini (1430-1516), Titian (1485-1576), Tintoretto (1518-1594), and Tiepolo (1696-1770), dominate the religious and artistic sites found in the island city of Venice. The city is divided into six districts. Each contains historical sites, however, the most notable are located in the districts of San Marco, San Polo, and Dorsoduro that border the Grand Canal. The artistic and religious sites of Venice are appreciated as part of the island?s historical past, as well as infused in its everyday present. One symbol of the importance of art in Venetian life is the lion of Venice. The lion honors the patron saint of Venice, St. Mark. It can be seen in many different poses including a peaceful, playful stance, an impassive guard, a majestic, stately lion, or even a forceful, warlike lion. The lion, like art and religion, reflects the spirit of Venice. San Marco District Saint Mark?s Basilica Since 830 AD, the basilica has housed the bones of St. Mark which were taken from Alexandria, Egypt and given at the Port of Olivolo to the D oge Giustiniano Particiaco. Mosaics in the basilica depict this event as bones being hidden under barrels of pork to keep Muslims away. Mark was patron saint of Alexandria and then became patron saint of Venice. The emblem of the patron saint is the winged lion with a sword and a book with the words Pax Tibi Marce Evangelista Meus, Peace to You, Oh Mark, My Evangelist. The church was built with eastern inspiration with its oriental domes and lustrous mosaics. This is an example of the connection between Venice and Byzantium, which protected Venice from Charlemagne and the Holy Roman Empire. The church contains four thousand sq... ...artistic sites of Venice leave a lasting impression for all who visit. Works Cited Crivellari, Domenico, and Maria Da Villa Urbani, eds. Basilica di San Marco. Procuratoria di San Marco Venezia. 2003. Girard-Sharp, Lisa, et al. Venice. New York: APA Publications, 1999. Openshaw, Gene, and Rick Steves, eds. Venice 2004. California: Avalon Travel, 2003. Peggy Guggenheim Collection. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 2003. Pioch, Nicolas. ?Titian.? WebMuseum, Paris. 2002. Pioch, Nicolas. ?Bellini.? WebMuseum, Paris. 2002. Rossi, Gerald. ?Il Tintoretto.? Catholic Encyclopedia. 2003. Steves, Rick. Italy 2002. California: Avalon Travel, 2002.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Drama Monologue Velocity vs. Viscosity :: Drama

Drama Monologue Velocity vs. Viscosity Insanity comes in two basic varieties: slow and fast. I'm not talking about onset or duration. I mean the quality of the insanity. The day to day business of being a head case. There are lots of names I guess: depression, catatonia, mania, anxiety, agitation. They don't really tell you much though do they? The predominant quality of the slow form in viscosity. Experience is thick. Perceptions are thickened and dulled. Time is slow, dripping slowly through the clogged filter of thickened perception. The body temperature is low. The pulse is sluggish. The immune system is half asleep. The organism is torpid and brackish. Even the reflexes are diminished, as if the lower leg couldn't be bothered to jerk itself out of stupor when the knee is tapped. Viscosity occurs on a cellular level. And so does velocity. In contrast to viscosity's cellular coma, velocity endows every platelet and muscle fibre with a mind of its own, a means of knowing and commenting on its own behaviour. There is too much perception, and beyond the plethora of perceptions, the plethora of thoughts about the perceptions and about the fact of having perceptions. Digestion could kill you! What I mean is the unceasing awareness of the processes of digestion could exhaust you to death. And digestion is just an involuntary sideline to thinking, which is where the real trouble begins. Take a thought - anything. I doesn't matter. For example - I'm tired of sitting here in front of the nurses station. I perfectly reasonable thought. Here's what velocity does to it. First break down the sentence. 'I'm tired' - well, are you really tired, exactly? Is that, like, sleepy? You have to check all body parts for sleepiness, and while you're doing that , there's a bombardment of images of sleepiness along these lines: head falling onto pillow, head hitting pillow, Wynken, Blynken and Nod, Little Nemo rubbing sleep from his eyes, a sea monster. Uh-oh, a sea monster. If you're lucky you can avoid the sea monster and stick with sleepiness. Back to the pillow, memories of having mumps aged five, sensation of swollen cheeks on pillows and pain of salivation - stop. Go back to sleepiness. But the salivation notion is too alluring, and now there's an excursion into the mouth. You've been here before and it's bad. It's the tongue: once you think of the tongue it becomes an intrusion. Why is the tongue so large? Why is it so scratchy on the sides? Is that a vitamin deficiency? Could you remove the tongue? Would your mouth be less of a bitch without it?