Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Andrew Carnegie: One of the Pioneers of the Big Business

Big Business Report University of Phoenix Ursula Murgado Introduction One of the pioneers of the Big Business I chose to research is Andrew Carnegie. In this paper I will include how was his business and how did Mr. Carnegie started his business. I will also talk about how his business grew to the level it did. The good and bad effects of the business in the 19th century, How Mr. Carnegie business affected society today, what were the pros and cons of this business, if this cons and pros still exist. Andrew Carnegie was an industrialist and philanthropist.Andrew Carnegie was born in November 25, 1835 in Dunfermline, Scotland. He was the son of a handloom weaver. Andrew’s Carnegie parents decide to move to North America in 1848 because of the conditions that they were living. Andrew’s father settled his family in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. Carnegie starting working at an early age in a factory getting pay $1. 20 a week. Then at the following year he found a job as a telegr aph messenger. By the year 1851 Carnegie became a telegraph operator because of his efforts to get ahead in life.After two years working as a telegraph messenger Carnegie decides to work at the Pennsylvania Railroad, he was the assistant and telegrapher of Thomas Scott, one of the railroad’s main officials. This job help Carnegie to learn about the railroad industry and also in business. After three years he was promoted to superintendent. Carnegie business was the steel company but he started his investment before he open his own steel company. He started investing in the years 1863 or 1864 and during the war years too. His profits were very high.First, his share of he† Woodruff Sleeping Car Company , he also invested in the Western Union Telegraph Company, The Iron City Forge, The Columbia Oil Company and the Third National Bank of Pittsburgh†. He also made other investments, that helped him own shares in more than twelve different companies. He was making aroun d $39,000 in investments plus his salary of $2400 dollars a year. He left the Pennsylvania Railroad before the Civil war started. His determination in investing during tough times help him grow his business to the level it did.Carnegie business in his Steel Industry help him revolutionize the production of steel in the United States. Carnegie was able to construct many steel plants around the United States with the a technology that made the manufacture of steel faster, easier and more productive. Carnegie owned everything he needed in order to become the â€Å"King of Steelâ€Å". Some of the negative effects of big business in the 19th century was the atmosphere and working conditions of the workers at the time repeatedly change. Technology is another negative effect because the products were not being complete made by an individual.Immigration was another effect. The positive effect was that more money for this country. A positive effect that Carnegie’s business had on s ociety were his donations to build libraries in the United States and in other English speaking countries. Carnegie funded about 3,000 libraries in 47 US states and other countries. In 1901 he gave two million dollars to create the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburg and the following year he donated the same amount to Washington D. C to found the Carnegie Institution. In my opinion Carnegie did a lot positive things for society.He was able to accomplish the American dream, as we know he was an Scotland immigrant. One of the negative things was the Homestead Mill strike because it â€Å"broke his reputation as a friend of the workers†. The pros of the big business in the 19th century were the benefits that industrialization gave to the people, like how the life of Americans improve and how their wages climbed. The cons was that everything comes with a price. The fact the workers bargain for better wages and better conditions at work was one of them. In my opinion th ese pros and cons do still exist in some way at this time.   Maybe not at the extent of the 19th century but they still exist .References Kent, Zachary. Andrew Carnegie, Steel King and Friend to Libraries, Historical America Biographies, 1999. Davidson-Gienapp-Heyrman-Lytle-Stoff:, Nation of Nations: A Concise Narrative of the American Republic, Fourth Edition IV. Global Essay: The United States in an Industrial Age19. The New Industrial Order (1870? 1900) The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005. American Experience, The Richest Man in the World Andrew Carnegie. The film and more. http://www. pbs. org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/peopleevents/index. html

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Chemunity.Com Case Study Analysis

Take Home Exam Questions Question 1 When ChemUnity. com began, Herman Rijks was a 37 year old, Masters of Science graduate from the Technological University of Delft, Netherlands. He was born in South Yemen and grew up in Africa. Rijks had experience in green-field chemical distribution start-ups, and general management experience in various chemical companies. He worked for HCI, a chemical company for three years, and prior to ChemUnity. com, he was part of the HCI corporate e-commerce task force. Mark-Jan Terwindt was a 34 year old graduate from Nijenrode Business School in Netherlands.He worked for eight years in the chemical distributions in countries such as: Ecuador, El Salvador, and Venezuela. Later, he went to the Czech Republic to manage HCI Operations, and before ChemUnity, he was in South Africa managing the integration of an acquired company. Both the founders spoke Dutch, English, Spanish, and a working knowledge of German, and additionally, Herman spoke French. Also, th e founders shared similar interests, like sports and traveling (flying), and both have wives and children. The founders have a good amount of experience in business, e-commerce and the general industry to succeed.They both have several years tenure in companies related to the industry. Also, they are highly educated in areas that are important to the company (for example, Business and Science). The linguistic abilities of the founders allow them to understand and communicate with partners and customers in Western Europe, improving communication channels and service quality. The shared interests they have could mean that they understand each other more, have a good friendship, and allow them to work together on the company more frequently than just regular founders.Alternatively, this could mean that they will reinforce each other’s ideas without truly considering all the factors involved. Question 2 The product that ChemUnity provides fits extremely well with an online exchan ge because it’s a commodity. Meaning that all variables (grade, concentration & packaging) can be standardized and price is the determinate factor. The system used protects the buyers and sellers, and creates a serious and profitable environment for all, and makes buying and selling easy.A buyer’s order has a preferred and highest acceptable price, and only the preferred price is transferred to the suppliers. Potential suppliers within the right geographical region are forwarded the message via email and SMS. The supplier has 25 hours to respond with a bid, and this only happens once to avoid price erosion of auction-like bids. ChemUnity compares the bid, informs the buyer and supplier who got the deal, and they take care of the transaction. Additionally, no parties can withdraw from the deal, and inquiries are very serious.The simplicity in the variables makes commodities easy to trade in an online exchange and the business model developed by ChemUnity creates a profi table, safe, and easy buying & selling environment. The characteristics of the products fit, and can be successfully sold online in an online exchange. Question 3 Steps (1) through (5) explain the trading process at ChemUnity and are listed below. (1) An inquiry is posted from a buyer on the ChemUnity website that includes the name, grade, concentration, and packing of the commodity based on a predetermined list, delivery date, geographical region of the buyer, and a price indication. price indication includes preferred and highest acceptable price, and the preferred is given transferred to suppliers) (2) Potential suppliers, determined by information given by companies, are forwarded the inquiry. (Both supplier and buyer can exclude parties or regions outside of their scope to trade. ) (3) Once an email or SMS message is received by the supplier they have 25 hours to respond with its bid. (Which only can be made once to prevent price erosion) (4) ChemUnity compares the bids, inform s the supplier who got the deal, and connects the buyer and seller where the transaction is managed between the two parties. transaction is binding and because of credit insurance, supplier payment is certain) (5) The supplier ships the product and the buyer receives it. The trading process is streamlined and simplified in a concise number of steps. This seems like a very efficient process that does not even revision and it serves its purpose. Question 4 Value Proposition for Both Buyers and Sellers * Time efficiency in buying & selling products. * Access to good buyer & seller track records. * Emotion free deals with no room for confusion. * Multiple ways to access: internet or WAP phone capability. Clear legal framework adds simplicity. * No time zones. * Future linkage to your order entry. * Credit insurance. * More efficient supply chain. * Optional usage and ability to react whenever needed. * Higher margins as non-value added middlemen are eliminated. Value Proposition for Buy ers * No need to contact multiple sellers with each purchase of products. * Quick responses to requests. * Proactive & filtered information with no overload or irrelevant postings. * Post your preferred price. * Able to source from new companies more efficiently and at lower prices. Value Proposition for Sellers Receive only interesting requests from buyers that are profitable through filtering of information based on seller’s profile. * Possibility of serving smaller customers and reaching customers in new geographical markets. * Freedom in making bids. * Set your own prices. * Payment coverage and easy credit checks. * Ability to exclude regions or parties in a buyers list. * Ability to do normal business and travel as bids only needed to be checked once a day. * Eliminate regional boundaries and ability to reach the whole market. * Other sellers in market will not dump products. No Price erosion from auction like bids. There are several advantages for both parties at what would seem like little to no cost to either party. ChemUnity assists these companies in making transactions while they focus on their respective specializations. This allows for much more buying and selling efficiency. The value proposition is extremely strong. The value proposition seems great on paper, but in fact could be improved greatly. As the alternative ChemUnity. com Case (2002) suggests the chemicals market is large one and has a long inefficient supply chain.A consortium might not wipe out all the companies, and classifications and regulations in Europe is still far from consistent across all countries. A very large part of customers do not use a Complete Tender Management system, they use catalogues. A large addition to the value added for a supplier and buyer would be to have one of these systems implemented. Sourcing/access to the information will give value added and not just a yellow pages approach to the system. Question 5 There are several major threats to the Chem Unity Business model and four of them are summarized below.Potential price collusion between suppliers One threat to ChemUnity business model is the collusion of prices between suppliers. If they decided to set all the prices high it could affect the ability for the company to create value for the buyer. Also, even if these prices weren’t high, it would affect the ability for ChemUnity to negotiate prices. This threat is strong because it would eliminate the value added, but is very unlikely to happen as the suppliers want to compete naturally in sales and would require some type of elaborate conspiracy. Supplier and buyer post purchase relationshipAnother threat to the ChemUnity business model is if the buyers and sellers decide to keep makings transactions after the first sale without ChemUnity in the picture. This would probably increase seller margins and make products cheaper for the buyers. ChemUnity would not have control over the situation as much, due to the fact the y bring the buyer and seller together and let them take care of the transaction. Competing websites (Catalogue, Aggregator and Auction) Catalogue, aggregator, and auction site business models are in direct competition with the ChemUnity business model.They can take away market share because we all compete for the same customers. If users have no problem searching through the catalogues and finding the deal they want, there is no value added for the searching and time costs that ChemUnity offers. Aggregator business models can add huge amounts of leverage to the buyer as they are all working together to get the best prices. They go to the supplier, speak for the buyers and get the best deal. Auction sites can but a lot of pressure on suppliers and can support dumping practices and price erosion. It is very attractive to a buyer when he can get much lower prices as a result of these effects.Traditional Distributers These traditional distributers could be considered indirect competitor s as they do not compete online, but have a presence in the industry. They could have strong relationships with buyers especially in their local geographical areas. They could compete on convenience and logistics with the buyers, especially if it was a convenient automatic replenishment system, where the traditional distributers handled everything. This is based off of the idea that managing something might have more costs than it’s worth, especially if it’s in small quantities or cost values.Consortiums According to the alternate ChemUnity. com case study (2002), ChemUnity could encounter problems if a company’s grouped together to start their own market place. This is known as a consortium, and ChemUnity could â€Å"find it [hard] to get suppliers and buyers to go on-line, and this is a drawback compared with a consortium. † It further explains that if key suppliers were to launch a consortium it would crush the market place credibility of ChemUnity. Ov erall Threat Analysis There are several threats that the ChemUnity business model faces in this environment.Potential price collusion between suppliers eliminates the value added by the company and supplier & buyer post purchase relationship prevents revenue from repeat purchases. Catalogue, Aggregator, and Auction sites – the direct competition for the company, threaten the business model as they compete for the same customers. Traditional distributers – our indirect competitors, still have a presence in the industry through customer relationships, convenience, and time saved. Consortiums are future competitors; they can crush the credibility of the company if created.ChemUnity can meet its threats as it a differentiated service than can add a lot of value, but if it cannot meet its threats it will have huge problems with market penetration. Question 6 Below you will find a Porter’s Five Forces analysis used to find the attractiveness of the industry. Bargainin g Power of Buyers (-) Bargaining power of buyers is very high, because buyers are not dependant on this way of purchasing a product. They can use multiple other channels to purchase it. There is a high availability of substitute services, so buyers have a lot of power in terms of options.Buyer switching costs are nothing compared to firm switching costs, buyers can choose to go anywhere and this service has a small amount of buyers (because of the large size of orders). In addition, there is high buyer price sensitivity and buyer information is extremely high. They can search a lot of places to find information on prices. Lastly, the products do not have uniqueness, they are simplistic in the amount of variables and standardized. Overall, bargaining power of buyers is high and I rated this as negative for the attractiveness of the industry.Bargaining Power of Suppliers (+) In general, there are there are several suppliers who offer similar products so there are a lot of alternatives for the firm to work with other suppliers who want the demand. There is also a high presence of substitute inputs for these chemicals as other manufactures can create identical chemical products. There is also a very weak distribution channel so the suppliers may rely some of the companies’ services. Overall, the bargaining power of suppliers is low and I rated this as positive for the attractiveness of the industry. Threat of New Entrants (-)A website with a similar business model could easily be implemented at a very low cost. Similar software that the company uses could easily be imitated because of the very simplified variables in commodity products and intuitive idea. Websites can be up in a matter of weeks or days, and overall it is very easy for new entrants to start a company. Alternatively, the exit barriers are very low as well, as a website can be shut down at any moment and the company holds no inventory or major facilities. Overall, the threat of new entrants is high and I rated this as negative for the attractiveness of the industry.Threat of Substitute Products or Services (-) The threat of substitute services is very high. Any company could come up with a similar idea and there are several substitute business models that threaten the market share. Catalogue, Aggregator, and Auction sites can easily be substitutes for the service. Traditional distributers can also easily service anyone in this market. In addition, key suppliers could create a consortium and take over instantly while killing the market credibility of this service. Overall, the threat of substitute services is high and I rated this as negative for the attractiveness of the industry.Intensity of Competitive Rivalry (-) Intensity of Competitive Rivalry is high in the industry, as the case noted – there were a lot of players in the market place that established operations and gathered customer base. These companies, along with us compete for the same customers. There a re several firms in the industry competing (high firm concentration ratio). Strong competition between online and offline service offerings mixed with difficulty in maintaining a sustainable competitive advantage leads to a high intensity of competitive rivalry.Overall, the intensity of competitive rivalry is high and I rated this as negative for the attractiveness of the industry. Overall the attractiveness of the industry as seen in the above Porters Five Forces analysis is one out of five which leads me to believe the industry isn’t very attractive. The bargaining power of buyers, threat of new entrants, threat of substitute products or services, and intensity of competitive rivalry were all negative in terms of attractiveness in our analysis. The buyers have power, entrants can easily get in, there are many substitutes, and it is very competitive.The only attractive part is that supplier power is not that high, even though they are still very important to the firm. Questi on 7(a) As indicated in the case, the major categories of ChemUnity’s costs were related to marketing, people, and IT. Also, in the beginning marketing was the biggest cost at 60%, leaving 30% to people, and 10% to IT. Later, the people costs were assumed to rise and the marketing costs were assumed to go down. I estimate this would leave us at 50% marketing, 40% people and 10% IT. It was noted in the case that there were two venture capital companies providing early financing in the amount of â‚ ¬1. million (27. 5% of the company). Using this number, marketing would cost â‚ ¬750,000, people would cost â‚ ¬600,000, and IT would cost â‚ ¬150,000. Question 7(b) As noted in the case, the average size of a deal was estimated to be â‚ ¬5,000 to â‚ ¬10,000. Using the 2% transaction fee, and the most conservative deal estimate, you get â‚ ¬100 per transaction (â‚ ¬5000 ? 2%). This would mean that you would require 1,500,000 transactions to break even with the early financing that was made. This could be attainable over time but is not likely to happen quickly, especially with the low amount of buyers the business serves.Question 7(c) Using the 3000 daily customers to the website from the case, the 1995 click through rate of 2. 1% , and a estimate of â‚ ¬0. 19 per click ( high pay-per click estimate is due to the fact that these customers are very focused), the website could generate â‚ ¬11. 9 daily (3000 ? 2. 1% ? â‚ ¬0. 19), and â‚ ¬359. 10 monthly. This is not a very significant amount of money. The pros of this kind of income is that it is basically free, as long as you have a website and takes not much management of the ads to generate the revenue.The cons are that there is a very small amount of money per click, and with only 3000 customers daily you are very limited to how much you can make. If you had for example a hundred thousand or so a day, this would be much better. Question 8 Short-Term Challenges The main short -term challenge was to test the concept with a couple of products to see if the company is on the right track. Successful implementation starts from marketing and the company needs to make sure suppliers are aware of the exchange and get product leaders. The belief at the time was that the buyers would come as soon as the sellers were onboard.Once buyers and sellers are established, the company needs to activate them to get the market liquidity up. Once the company is known for these products, they have succeeded in the first challenge. The second short-term challenge was a human resources issue; they needed people a chemical history background. These people would communicate with suppliers and buyers and should bring enthusiasm and belief in the business idea. The third short-term challenge was an IT issue – the technology needed to work flawlessly in its execution.The service is not perfect at the moment the company is working towards improving it. Long-Term Challenges The major long-term challenge was expansion of operations. By targeting a couple of strategic suppliers and many fragmented buyers in each product, they believed they could have a total of 200-500 suppliers, and up to 10,000 buyers. They believe they need to proceed with one product at a time, giving them the ability to test the concept and concentrate efforts on a focused segment. The real challenge was to pick the right products.They could also expand their service portfolio, by providing more financial services to gain revenue. They could also get involved with transportation, but would be a difficult avenue as they need to choose the right services, good partners and the proper expansion location. Cash flow has been an issue so the company needs to raise more financing. A second round of financing was timed for a couple months after launching the service. The company wants to raise another â‚ ¬5 – 10 million from banks, venture capital, and market players. Meeting Short-Te rm ChallengesThe company needs to begin testing the concept as soon as possible. Successful implementation begins with marketing efforts – the company needs to raise supplier awareness of the exchange and get product leaders onboard. The next issue is raising market liquidity, and it can be done by activating the sellers and buyers by contacting them. Once the company raises awareness about its products, they have succeeded in the first short-term challenge. The second short-term challenge can be solved by using a headhunter to find the best people the company can find.This would require some funding but will easily be worth the cost. These people would need to be educated on the concepts of the company and know how to communicate well with suppliers and buyers about the service, and have enthusiasm and a strong belief in the business. The final short-term challenge can be solved by rigorously testing and improving the technology to work flawlessly. Meeting Long-Term Challeng es The expansion of operations should be done by targeting more suppliers and buyers for more potential revenue.I believe these need to be higher than the estimates given in the case– 200 suppliers and maybe 5000 buyers is not adequate enough. It is possible they can try targeting an additional geographical location, perhaps in South/Central America or Africa where the founders worked. Either way, with the market they have now, they need to test a concept and concentrate efforts on a focused segment and pick the right products. One option for expansion was to provide financial services, or get involved with the transportation of the product.Personally, I am not a fan of this idea because they are losing focus on what they specialize in. But if they were to do these options, they would need to hire consultants and rework the business model entirely. Also, with transportation they need to choose the right type of services, good partners, and a good expansion location. Finally f or their cash flow problems, they will need to ensure they get that financing by fully disclosing information, addressing the problems they have, and working with venture capitalists to perhaps negotiate the share of the company for a given amount of funding.Question 9 As the alternate ChemUnity Case Study (2002) suggests, it’s easy to multiply figures and play around revenues and market volume on paper, but it does not address the habits of a given industry. Experience has shown that many internet service providers have failed due to the fact that many of them were not focused enough, spent too much money before making any, and didn’t bring enough value to its users. The main challenge lies in the art of change management.ChemUnity has this challenge for both buyers and seller, but it remains that these groups would benefit from a multitude of significant strategic advantages (if it had the ability to support change management processes) Also the case suggests that fo r the company to potentially succeed, the platform they develop must be flexible and characterized by short development cycles that will match the needs of the market and increase the functionality for its end users. They also need the right mix of employees with experience in the field and who are used to driving change along with a highly skilled sales team.If they had an online complete tender management system, they could save time and money and access more efficient markets. This is a great opportunity for the company to drive change in the company – along with a complete business process reengineering of their buying and selling process. If the company followed these steps, they would have potential success in the market. I personally don’t think they can be successful unless they do these things, and it seems like a big changes are needed. Question 10 (a) The three options for business model changes are below:Status Quo This option would be to remain the same bu t focused on its specialization. Transportation Addition to Business Model This option would be to introduce transportation into the model to create more value for customers. Financial Services Addition to Business Model This option would be to introduce financial services into the model to create more value for customers. The criteria we used to assess which business model to use includes the following: Cost, Value Added, Revenue, Expenses, Ease of Change, and Adaptability.I decided to use a decision matrix and estimate the values from 1-10 using subjective data from the case and intuition. The best alternative according to the criteria is Added Financial Service to the business model. It would not cost a very high amount to implement, would add a decent amount of value and revenue to the business. The expenses are fairly high, seeing as you need more cash on hand and you need to develop this business model, and be able to setup a good financial plan for customers.The ease of chang e is pretty fair, is pretty easy to adapt into it, and has a moderate amount of risk involved. Finally, the market share is would increase a lot compared to status quo. The next close business model would have been transportation, it’s just a more risky and more rewarding model because it requires large capital investments, but hard to adapt and change into. References Petri Lehtivaara (2002) ChemUnity. com Case Study. Retrieved From http://www. supplychain-forum. com/documents/articles/ACF41. df Nielsen Norman Group (2000) Methodology Weaknesses in Poynter Eyetrack Study. Retrieved from http://www. nngroup. com/articles/methodology-weaknesses-poynter/ Wikipedia (2012) Pay Per Click. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pay_per_click ——————————————– [ 2 ]. Nielsen Norman Group reports a 2. 1% click through rate in 1995. [ 3 ]. Wikipedia reports that in 1997 the pa y-per-click was from $. 005 to $. 25 (â‚ ¬0. 003 to â‚ ¬0. 19 using March 26,2013 exchange rates)

Monday, July 29, 2019

Starbuck's Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Starbuck's - Essay Example The tables below show the ratio analysis for the fiscal years 2006 and 2007. The current ratio shows a company’s abilities to pay for its current obligations. The formula used to calculate the current ratio is current assets divided by current liabilities. The current ratio of Starbucks for both 2006 and 2007 was 0.79. In theory the desirable current ratio is to have a 1.0 current ratio or above. The metric result shows the company is able to pay for its current liabilities. The fact that the current ratio stayed at the same level is good sign, bad would be if the current ratio of the company decreased. Starbuck’s debt to equity ratio in 2006 was 0.99 implying that the company had as much debt as equity. In 2007 the company’s ratio rose 35% meaning Starbucks long term debt increased. At first glance it is never a good sign to look at year to year financial statement and to see more debt in the books. More debt sometimes means trouble, but necessarily. A higher amount of debt could mean a company borrowed money in order to finance some investments that will increase its profitability. To learn more about what Starbucks has done with its new money we have to analyze the firm’s profitability’s ratios. Return on equity is a profitability ratio. In 2006 Starbucks return on equity was 25.32%, by 2007 the firm had risen this ratio to 29.44%. The total increase in return on equity at Starbucks was 4.12% which represents a percentage increase of 16.27% in comparison with the previous year. The increase in return on equity at Starbucks is a good indicator. It prov es so far that the company has invested its added debt total smartly and that the company is more profitable. The financial ratio analyzes performed on Starbucks shows the company heading in a good direction. The firm added a lot of long term debt but the money apparently spend wisely in capital projects that raised the level of income of the company. The company’s ability to pay its

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Physical Health in Doha Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Physical Health in Doha - Essay Example The rapidly increasing obesity rates would predispose people to developing medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases among other weight related medical conditions. Research findings also indicated that both children and adults indiscriminately developed type II diabetes as a result of obesity; whereby, 15.4% of adults and 28.8 % of children below 5 years of age were diabetic. The high obesity and diabetic statistics is attributable to a variety of factors that are discussed in detail below (Bell 1). Qatar’s inhabitants’ binding traditions, poor eating habits and the privileged lifestyle led by many Qatari natives play a significant role in contributing to the rise in obesity within the region. Qatar’s per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the second highest in the world, and is attributable to its third largest natural gas reserves globally. Of the 1.6 million Qatari inhabitants, 250, 000 are natives born within the privileged class keen on following and keeping their traditions in spite of the diverse cultural influences in existence created by the many non-native inhabitants. Majority of this privileged class resides in the capital city of Doha where modern conveniences are not in short supply (Slackman 1). From a very tender age, the indoctrination of children occurs through the process of socialization; whereby, young children learn through modeling and conditioning desirable attitudes and behaviors. Among the things learnt include; eating habits, food preferences and attitudes towards exercising. Qatari children face no restrictions when it comes to their dietary; whereby, their parents, relatives and friends ply them with both home cooked foods ( rice, lamb and clarified butter being a major delicacy) and fast foods such as hamburgers and French fries throughout the day. It is also hard to control

Acts of Faith Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Acts of Faith - Essay Example In this book, the author talks about various identity related issues that young Muslim immigrant generation faces in America. The author tries to find a perfect balance between the life of a Muslim and a fully American person. A person taking birth in America comes usually faces identity crisis because he/she has to cope with the challenge of finding the real identity out of the pool of incomplete identities. In this book, the author has mentioned that in the process of finding his true self, he experienced different aspects of a mixed culture. For example, the author was taking inspirations from people from other religions and had relations with Mormon and Jewish women. Practicing a different religion (Buddhism), having parents from some other religion (Islam), and discovering roots in some other culture (Indian Culture) are the basic elements of this book. This book is mainly for such immigrants who are in despair or feel alienated about their future. In a world full of fundamentalist aggression and noticeable religious division, this book provides a way and hope for people to find their real self, as well as a direction towards their future. I think this book is a good source of hope for people taking birth and growing up in America as Muslim immigrants. In general, such people face difficulty in finding their origin in terms of culture and region because they live in a Western culture that does not hold the same cultural or religious values as of their real cultures and religions. In some cases, they face identity crisis in their whole lives. This book provides them with some hope to find their identities while living in a different society. One of the main challenges for a second generation Muslim immigrant is to find the roots of his/her own religion and culture after facing a series of rejections all through his/her adolescence and early adulthood. This book can help such

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Interpreting the OT Prophets Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Interpreting the OT Prophets - Research Paper Example Prophetic interpretation is a practical matter. Therefore, the interpretations of the contents must be in line with the use of specific insight that is accessible to the society in order for the message to be convincible. This interpretation inspires the faith that is inclined to God and not to the prophet himself. Prophetic interpretation involves basing personal arguments, personal teachings and understandings on what the scripture says. The sayings of the scripture must be in line with what people can see by themselves in translation to commonly available things. It is essential to examine the grammar, words and flow of paragraphs. Prophesy supports more fundamental goals rather than being an end in itself. The purpose of prophesy must be in-line with God’s objective of dealing with humanity. God’s purpose is to reconcile us with him by providing us with salvation through Christ Jesus. This must be the greatest objective of prophesy. It must instruct us on the right channel to follow in obtaining the salvation in faith. In the context of Jeremiah chapter 2 verses 14 to 28; the prophet that the only reason that will cause Israel to fall a prey to its enemies will be as a result of infidelity to her divine spouse. This passage is based on prophetic relationship between God and his people. God relates with his people in a way that is represented in the bible as marriage relationship. God being the head and husband while the people being the church represented as the woman. Therefore, this passage refers to infidelity to illuminate the understanding that the wrong acts of Israelites will be similar to infidelity which in turn has a law that accepts for divorce. 2 This message is easily understood and remembered by the Israelites because it uses the practice aspect of marriage. The marriage practice and its consequences both positive and negative are common and

Friday, July 26, 2019

Sitcom Internet Assignment Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Sitcom Internet Assignment - Research Paper Example Presently, people cite most of these sitcoms lack the necessary â€Å"glue† and creativity, which in the past used to draw large masses into watching them (Rowles). They are just like other â€Å"easygoing† shows comprising TV programs often trying hard to be clever in both entertaining and creating attention but in vain (Rowles). For instance, Rowles in his article cites the current â€Å"Modern Family† does not have those â€Å"gluing† and thrilling scenes, hence, many viewers currently only watch them because it is â€Å"just there†. This depicts lack of creativity leading to retarding nature of characters that almost throughout relayed episodes do not have anything new but the recycled depiction of behaviors. Hence, turning to be predictable such that viewers are always aware of the upcoming episode and what will present, which signifies absence of originality almost in all shows. Therefore, current sitcoms seem to attract viewers only by use of well-crafted and scripted names or titles. This is evident in â€Å"Modern family† whereby the show ought to depict the reality characterizing 21st century family setting but assumes a conservative nature, which is even far from incomparable to the 1920s American sexual transition era (Rowles). Most of this show’s episodes do not deal with modern predicaments facing families to make them thrilling and entertaining but tend to focus on jealousy issues mostly represented by Petty. This has prompted some of its viewers claiming the show even in ten decades to come will remain the same irrespective of airing numerous episodes. Since, the show has never presented viewers with anything thrilling to challenge their imaginations to such an extent they are unable to guess the nature of next episodes (Rowles). Ojalvo, Doyne and Schulten in their study refer sitcoms as â€Å"cultural texts† whereby anybody is capable of predicting their entire outcomes. They are similar t o numerous texts students normally analyze whereby eventually manage to get similar stylistic devices. This is absence of innovation on the part of scriptwriters and those behind sitcoms despite giving them fancy names bear similar materials. This is recycling of ideas with little or no change to add on the thrilling aspects contrary to the viewers who are changing by the day as they watch other varied programs. Hence, they depict a downward trend that has prompted numerous viewers stop watching them or doing so because they are â€Å"just there† while waiting for their favourite programs (Ojalvo, Doyne and Schulten). The new sitcom family has certainly matured since the days of â€Å"I Love Lucy,† yet do the new sitcom families represent the diversity of American families today? Do we see African-American families? Asian families? Same-sex families? Are we seeing diversity or are the networks still playing it safe so as to not â€Å"offend† advertisers. In the present age, despite directors and other proponents citing sitcoms have undergone immense transformation by presenting mature content, they have lacked representation of American racial diversity. Characters comprising most of the current sitcoms are whites, which is not a reflection of American families. For instance, after â€Å"Cosby† series, other telecasted shows like â€Å"Reed between the Lines† feature attractive and well off family having beautiful children facing daily challenges but manage to resolve them within 30 minutes (Braxton). This leaves viewers

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Business Models and Planning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Business Models and Planning - Essay Example Remarkably, VCs consider diverse factors before deciding to invest their funds in various business opportunities. There are three major factors the VCS would evaluate to ascertain the viability of the business opportunities. The factors include market size, management team and technology, as outlined by Roberts and Barley (2004). The first factor that VCs consider when investing in a new business is the management team. Regarding the management team, the VC must evaluate the ability to adapt to prevailing marketing environment. In essence, it is the ability of the business to cope with the dynamicity and complexity of the business environment. VCS would consider whether to continue with the existing marketing team or employ more workforces. The management team should consist mostly of a focused team of entrepreneurs whose primary objective is the success of the business (Roberts & Barley, 2004). The second factor that VCs consider before venturing in the new business is the ‘market’. The market is the strength of every business. Either the market is the physical location of the business or any other platform where the exchange of goods and services take place. The entrepreneur should access the market size and formulate viable marketing strategies in order to evaluate the accessibility and the possibility of expansion and developing the market niche. The penetration of the business’ products is a great factor in marketing that is the ability of the products to compete in new markets. The third critical factor considered by VCs when investing in a new market is technology. Notably, technology is a current trend in the world of business. Most business operations, today, require technology to enhance the efficiency and productivity of the company. Technology facilitates speed and accuracy in the production process. The application of the technology in various departments would enable the company to limit the chances of

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

BCEN Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

BCEN - Essay Example orever Young is guided by a mission to become the world’s leading distributor of organic foods, create a healthy family for the future through quality products, enhanced supply chains and well-trained staff. We are committed to a better tommorow and will, therefore, use the available technology to ensure customer experience is enhanced. Our greatest strength is the goodwill and continuous encouragement that we have received from our clients. In the last twelve months, our customer base grew with a margin of 15% on referrals alone. The referrals signified the great deal of trust placed on our products by our clients. The customer loyalty we enjoy makes it possible for us to make profits above break-even. In numbers, we cater for about 30 million households with a potential of growing the number to 100 million in the next five years. As we venture into the world market, we are encouraged by the fact that the organic food market is growing each year and has a net value of US$45million which hasn’t been fully achieved. Over the years, Forever Young has acquired state of the art equipment that give our products a competitive edge in quality and cost efficiency. Being able to achieve high quality at low prices is a strength that any firm would like to achieve, and we have done it with the corporation from our highly trained staff. In such an expensive market, capital can be a limiting factor. For us though the amount of capital available for investment is high and the continuous interests from investors and our good credit rating give us an advantage when it comes to requesting for funds for new investments. In our 12 years of operation, we have developed a strong staff training regime that allows us to employ and attract the best experts in the market. This strong programme has ensured that staff morale is always high which reflects in our sales and customer service provision. Organic foods have never been cheap since production cost is high. With

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

In what ways does phonological transfer affects Spanish learners in Research Paper

In what ways does phonological transfer affects Spanish learners in the learning of English - Research Paper Example The critical analysis of the articles will explain phonological transfer in the sense of vowel transfers. The other part of the work will make an analysis and recommendations on phonological transfer and their impacts with the two extremes of language. The mistakes of Spanish students in terms of phonology and morphology of language will be analyzed real context. The analysis will integrate the analysis of influencing factors and how they affect the learning of the new language with reiteration being made on English learners as the second language. A conclusion will furnish the readers with my final stand on the issue of phonological transfer with respect to vowel transfer. The study further shows the interaction between bilingualism, vowel contrasts, and novel words. Bilingual participants had greater difficulty with the certainty of vowel contrasts that were contained in learners words, whereas native English participants had no significant difficulty with vowel contrasts in either real or novel words. The main variables that affected the bilingual participants’ in the process of phonological transfer were the age of acquisition of English, the report of problems in communication in English, and the overall percentage of time that was devoted to communication and learning in English. INTRODUCTION A number of previous studies have shown that phonological transfers have a vast impact when it comes to the learning of a language as the second language. The impacts have been observed when it comes to the experience of both the adults in production and perception of L2 sounds. Non-native speakers of language accuracy of pronouncing the vowels are inversely related to their age as opposed to their accuracy in pronouncing the consonants. Flege (1991b) found out in one of his studies that the non-native Spanish speakers who went to the US produced English vowels in an intended manner more often than those who went to the US as adults who produced the vowels in a more or less non-intended manner. There was a less spectral overlap between adjacent between the adjacent vowels as spoken by the early bilinguals as compared to those from the late bilinguals (Garcia Perez, 2003). Furthermore, there is the other impact of phonological transfer in terms of the vowel production accuracy as they vary among the individuals who began speaking the language when they are adults. Flege (199a) found out that English spoken by students with mild accents were more intelligible than that spoken by students with strong foreign accents. This is despite the fact that the basis of the strong accent with respect to vowel production differences still remaining unknown. There are questions raised though of whether the improvement in vowel production in adults occur naturally when one is exposed to L2 or it needs some special talents. The methodology for the findings above was conducted on ten Spanish speakers and having no other language acquired in the period of t he research at level 400 or at far the university level. The students were recruited at their respective English classes across the universities of the US states. The students were generally from the same state and were between 20-23 years of age. The average number of years that the students had studied English was 7.8 with the greatest having studied for 12 years and the least 4 years (Kuhl & Iverson, 1995). A greater percentage of about 60% and above had done the studies of the language for more than 7 years including how vowels move concerning the experience of the speaker with English language. This

Monday, July 22, 2019

Feet by Seamus Deane Essay Example for Free

Feet by Seamus Deane Essay The following extract is taken from the book- Reading in the Dark by Seamus Deane written in 1996. The extract focuses on one of the chapters in the book titled as Feet. The extract is based on a young boy hiding under the table viewing the death of his sister and how she is taken to the hospital. Through the style, setting and characterization, the reader is able to understand the thoughts and feelings portrayed by Deane. The extract is written in an autobiographical style, from the point of view of a young boy who narrates the story. The repetition of I gives the extract a personal touch. Using the boy as the narrator allows the writer to acquire greater intimacy and sympathy for the character. In addition, it makes the extract comic and light hearted, even though it talks about death and loss. This fusion of comedy and tragedy reflects the idea that life is a series of sorrows and joys. The extract is set under the table. Throughout the extract, the boys name is not revealed which allows the reader to explore other characters in the extract through his perceptions. The reader gets the impression that the boy is young and naà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ve. He is not aware of the seriousness of the situation as he loved the names of the diseases. He finds the names peculiar and compares them with Italian football players, racing drivers and opera singers. The dog is symbolic of what the boy feels. The whimpering and quivering of the dog reflects the boys inner feelings. I became deaf to their words and alert to their noise presents the idea that the boy has become like the dog, behaving in the same way. Deane mentions feet in the first line of the extract which reinforces the importance of the title. Also, the repetition of feet suggests the importance and significance of the title since the young boy sees everyone from under the table judging them only on what shoes theyre wearing. Deane uses visual and aural imagery to captivate the readers attention in line 1 and 2- I could only see their feet. But I could hear the noise and some of the talk Deane uses heavy sensory imagery to emphasize the importance of feet as the title. He describes the characters and their social status through the shoes theyre wearing. For instance, in lines 30-34, I recognized Uncle Manuss brown shoes: the heels were worn down Uncle Dan and Uncle Tom had identical shoes, heavy and rimed with mud and cement Dans were dirtier but they werent good shoes. The detailed description of the shoes allows the reader to make judgments about the characters. The description is used for characterization- mud and cement, give the reader the impression that theyre working men at a construction site. Heavy suggests that theyre strong, muscular men and develops their personality in the readers mind. But they werent good shoes suggests that theyre not very rich people. The predicament of the extract is presented through specific and short sentences. Una. My younger sister, Una. This sentence clearly brings the focus on Una, to highlight the importance of her character. The writer tells the readers that she is going to die and goes into great details describing her illness and pain. That morning, Una had been so hot, pale and sweatyshe had made me think of sunken fires her eyes shone with pain and pleasure, inflated from the inside. The coupling of pain and pleasure reinforces the idea that joy and sorrow go hand in hand. With his style, use of imagery, setting and characterization, Deane creates an intriguing story which reflects harsh ideas of death and reality through the innocent, happy world of a young, naà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ve boy.

Rights and Obligations of the State Essay Example for Free

Rights and Obligations of the State Essay Nation may refer to a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, or history. However, it can also refer to people who share a common territory and government. State commonly refers to either the present condition of a system or entity, or to a governed entity government is the system by which a state or community is governed. Rights and Obligations of the State Article 1 is all about national territory Article 2 Declaration of Principles and State Policies Article 3 Bill of rights Article 4 all about citizenship Article 5 Suffrage(Right to vote) Article 6 Legislative Department Article 7 Executive Department Article 8 Judicial Department Article 9 -Common Provision(Section 1-8 -Civil Service Commission (Section 1-16) -Commission on Audit (Section 1-4) Article 10 Local Government Article 11 Accountability of public officers Article 12 National Economy Fransistory Provisions D. Parens Patriae Literally, this means father of the country. This doctrine has been defined as the inherent power and authority of the state to provide protection to the persons property of the person. Non Sui Juris = Persons who are those who lack the legal capacity to act on his own behalf. E. Doctrine of State Immunity = The immunity of the state from suit, known as the doctrine of sovereign immunity or non-suability of the state, is expressly provided in Article XVI of the 19987 Constitution. F. Fundamental Powers of the State There are three fundamental and inherent power of the state. 1. Police Power = is the power of the for promoting public welfare by restraining and regulating the use of liberty and property. 2. Power of Taxation = is the power by which the state raises revenue to defray the necessary expenses of government. 3. Power of eminent domain = is the power of the state to acquire private property for public purpose payment of just compensation.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Economic effects of globalisation in singapore

Economic effects of globalisation in singapore Globalization is defined as the free movements of goods, services and capital across borders. It is a contentious process by which the western market economies have effectively spread across the globe. Although it does not constitute a new phenomenon, it is viewed as an inexorable integration of markets, nations and technologies to a degree never witnessed before in a way that is enabling individuals, and corporations to reach around the world further, faster, deeper and more economically than ever before (Heshmati, 2003). Today, globalisation is evident in every aspect of our life and society. Globalisation has impacted us in many ways, most evidently in communication and interaction between different people. Globalisation has brought about the Internet and advanced technology. This has allowed for ease in facilitation of which many aspects of the world are run and work. People are able to use the Internet to communicate with people from the other side of the world and interact and discuss about issues in the market etc. Through globalisation, people are able to communicate and interact easily, in doing so causing the ease of disseminating information and even in the way that facilitated trade. Especially with regards to trade, globalisation has enabled many countries around the world to take advantage of the aspect of globalisation which improves communication and interaction between people. Many countries used this aspect to help expand and advance their economies and trade markets. The year 2007 to 2008 witnessed a movement of goods and services worth $132 trillion from the Peoples Republic of China across the globe. This led to a 5.4% increase or rise in the Chinese economy as compared from the previous economic growth of a rate of 3.4% (Moore Lewis, 2009). Economic globalization is defined as the rise in economic interdependence of different nations economies of the world and it entails a dramatic rise in movement of goods, technology, capital and service across nations borders (Justin, 2001). Economic globalization has also provided opportunities for developing countries in that it expands the size of their markets for export and attracts foreign capital, which aids development. Foreign investment is conducive to a transfer of technologies and knowhow, which increases productivity (Bertucci and Alberti, 2010). In the same way, Singapore has also used the aspect of globalisation which increases communication in her own advantage to improve the economy and trade. One of the industries affected positively from globalisation in Singapore is the tourism industry. With globalisation, people are able to move from one place to another easily and quickly, through the use of aeroplanes etc. This allows people to travel regularly to Singapore, from places as far as Africa and United States of America. With easier traveling, more people can come to Singapore to tour and enjoy the attractions such as the Marina Bay Sands, Sentosa, etc. With more people in Singapore, the tourism industry is able to earn more money through the expenditure of these tourists, from food and beverages to entrance fees of attractions. Thus, through globalisation, Singapores tourist industry is able to expand and advance. This table of statistics shows the number of visitor arrivals by region/country of residence from the year 1999 and 2004 to 2009. Through this table, it can be seen that a large amount of people from the United States of America come to visit Singapore every year, in 2009 totalling to 370.7 thousand. This shows how globalisation has affected the tourism industry. People from countries like the United States of America which is in the other side of the world is able to come over to Singapore in such large numbers. This can also be seen in Europe, where 1,307.4 thousand people arrived to Singapore in 2009. It can be seen that globalisation has improved the tourism industry through the increase of tourist arrivals over the years. Take the Commonwealth of Independent States and Eastern Europe for example. The number of people who have visited Singapore have risen from 42.8 thousand in 1999 to 114.3 thousand in 2008. This shows the influence of globalisation has on the tourism industry in Singapore. With a greater influence, globalisation makes the tourist industry to have more and more tourists every year due to the easier transportation and movement from one country to another. With globalisation helping the countrys economy to become wealthier, this in turn would affect the people positively, allowing them to have a better standard of living. There are many benefits that citizens will have through a booming economy. One positive effect is that globalization causes rapid changes in trade relations, financial flows, and mobility of labour across the world. The development has brought the economies of developed countries closer together and more strongly interrelated. Trade is more common across countries and people are able to move from one place to another more conveniently and frequently than before. With globalization, companies have forayed into the developing countries and hence generated employment for them. But it is one of the positive and negative effects of globalization, depending on the point of view you wish to see it from. It has given an opportunity to invest in the emerging markets and tap up the talent which is available there. In developing countries, there is often a lack of capital which hinders the growth of domestic companies and hence, employment. In such cases, due to global nature of the businesses, people of developing countries too can obtain gainful employment opportunities. But the developed countries have lost jobs on account of this movement of jobs to the developing world and hence it is a pinch felt by people in the First World. One of the most visible positive effects of globalization in India is the flow of foreign capital. A lot of companies have directly invested in India, by starting production units in India, but what we also need to see is the amount of FII that flows into the developing countries. Indian companies which have been performing well, both in India and off the shores, will attract a lot of foreign investment, and thus pushes up the reserve of foreign exchange available in India. This is also one of the positive effects of globalization in US and other developed countries as developing countries give them a good investment proposition. The last effect is the impact of foreign trade on an economy. Comparative advantage has always been a factor even in the old times. While trade originated in the times of early kingdoms, it has been institutionalized due to globalization. Previously, people had to resort to unfair means and destruction of kingdoms and countries to get what they wanted. Today, it is done in a more humane way, with mutual cooperation. People who operate in uncivilized ways, now have to face the WTO and other world organizations that have been established with a view to control and regulate the trade activities of the countries. With all these benefits, the incomes of Singaporeans have increased over the last few years. In Singapore, the household income from work in 2010 increased due to strong economic growth. Median monthly household income from work in 2010 recovered to above the level before the economic downturn in 2009. Among resident households, median monthly income from work increased by 3.1 per cent from $4,850 in 2009 to $5,000 in 2010 (Table 1); in real terms, the increase was 0.3 per cent (Department of Statistics Singapore, 2010). Table 1 Monthly Household Income from Work Among Resident Households Year Median Household Income Average Household Income Dollar Nominal Change (%) Real Change (%) Dollar Nominal Change (%) 2000 3,638 3.9 2.6 4,988 5.7 2001 3,860 6.1 5.0 5,338 7.0 2002 3,628 -6.0 -5.6 5,069 -5.0 2003 3,601 -0.7 -1.2 5,075 0.1 2004 3,689 2.4 0.8 5,194 2.3 2005 3,860 4.6 4.1 5,447 4.9 2006 4,000 3.6 2.6 5,715 4.9 2007 4,375 9.4 7.1 6,295 10.1 2008 4,946 13.1 6.0 7,086 12.6 2009 4,850 -1.9 -2.5 6,826 -3.7 2010 5,000 3.1 0.3 7,214 5.7 Source: Department of Statistics Singapore (2011) Key Household Income Trends, 2010 Among employed household, with at least one working person, median monthly income from work increased by 5.7 per cent in nominal terms (from $5,400 in 2009 to $5,700 in 2010) and 2.8 per cent in real terms (Table 2). Table 2 Monthly Household Income from Work Among Employed Households Year Median Household Income Average Household Income Dollar Nominal Change (%) Real Change (%) Dollar Nominal Change (%) 2000 4,000 5.3 3.9 5,456 7.0 2001 4,141 3.5 2.5 5,736 5.1 2002 4,038 -2.5 -2.1 5,572 -2.9 2003 4,050 0.3 -0.2 5,618 0.8 2004 4,106 1.4 -0.3 5,761 2.5 2005 4,345 5.8 5.3 6,052 5.1 2006 4,495 3.5 2.5 6,280 3.8 2007 4,883 8.6 6.4 6,889 9.7 2008 5,475 12.1 5.2 7,752 12.5 2009 5,398 -1.4 -2.0 7,549 -2.6 2010 5,704 5.7 2.8 8,058 6.7 Source: Department of Statistics Singapore (2011) Key Household Income Trends, 2010 Even though the income levels have risen among employed Singaporeans, we have found through our research that not every Singaporean enjoys these perks of having higher income through globalisation. This is the one effect of globalisation in Singapore that we would like to discuss in this paper. The phenomenon of widening income gap in Singapore, between the period of 2000 2010. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Sources of Information In this research paper, we used mainly secondary sources of information. The sources of information that we used are: Newspaper Articles The newspaper articles we used were from The Straits Times. We decided to use articles from our local newspaper as it leans more towards our country and hence, the articles would be more apt especially since our research is about the effects of globalisation in Singapore. The Straits Times is also a acclaimed worldwide as one of the best newspapers, hence, it would be more reliable. Research papers The research papers that we used, such as the article Reducing Singapores Income Disparity: Looking Forward is by professors from Singapore. Hence, it is more reliable as they have lived in Singapore and studied the trends over the years. It would also be more appropriate for them to comment on the findings that they have collated Magazines We used The Economist because our topic focused mainly on the economy, hence, since The Economist looks at the global market, it would be a good judge of the economy in the various parts of the world. One issue that we looked at was Volume 398, Number 8717 of The Economist, which had a special report called The rich and the rest. This was relevant because it talks about the issue of widening income gap and the income discrepancies in the world today, which is one of our main focuses in our research paper. Statistics Our statistics were taken from research papers (results were collected by the author of the research paper) and studies conducted by the government. Since the statistics were taken from reliable sources, it would be more accurate in showing trends over the years. Rationale of using the sources of Information In our research paper, we only used secondary sources. This is because our topic is mainly on the effects of globalisation, hence it would be more appropriate to analyse the trends and research instead of conducting an interview. It was also quite hard to find an interviewee because globalisation is a wide topic and many people might have their different opinions on it. Through conducting extensive research using newspaper articles, research papers, et cetera, we could generally find the trends and information that we needed for our paper. Hence, we found that it was not necessary to conduct interviews or surveys as information that we needed could be found. Limitations of Research The limitation of using solely secondary sources is that we are unable to get first-hand opinions of the globalisation trends that we see in Singapore. Even though the opinions might be subjective, it would be a helpful source in knowing more about globalisation through the interviewees. Limitation of Newspaper Articles: The newspaper articles had only touched lightly on either the topic of widening income gap or globalisation, hence we had to conduct more research in order to find more information about the topic. Limitation of Research Papers: Research papers were useful in providing us with extensive information, however, each research paper was very focused on the particular topic that the professor was working on, and hence, we had to combine various research papers in order to find the trends and information that we required for our own research paper. Limitation of Magazines: The Economist was mainly on general statistics in the world, and hence, many of the information were not pertaining to Singapore and we could not use it for our information. The magazines were only a good guide in showing us the effects of globalisation to the world in general. Limitation of Statistics: The statistics given were mainly not interpreted; hence, even though we had the statistics by the government and research papers, we had to interpret and tweak the information in the way that it suits our topic and supports our points in our research paper. FINDINGS: HOW GLOBALIZATION LED TO THE WIDENING INCOME GAP IN SINGAPORE Globalisation has caused many changes in the world that we live in today. There are many effects of globalisation in our society, both good and bad. Globalisation is the continuous tendency towards the free flow of business and monetary infusions across nations which help in the formation of international financial system (mapsofindia, 2011). Higher living standards Through globalisation, the standard of living around the world has improved considerably. This is due to the want for financial independence and thus, people are triggered to become competitive, elevating the living standard of people in the nations that offer themselves to the world trade (mapsofindia, 2011). With increased economic stability, countries are able to have faster economic growth, which will also improve the standard of living in the country and reduce poverty. India has cut its poverty rate in half in the past two decades. China has reduced the number of rural poor from 250 million in 1978 to 34 million in 1999. Cheaper imports also make a wider range of products accessible to more people and, through competition, can help promote efficiency and productivity (global education, 2011). The rich are also able to splurge on their extravagant lifestyle, hence heightening the income discrepancies, as while people on the higher end of the income ladder are living a luxurious lifestyle, the lower-skilled workers are worried about keeping their jobs. This increased standard of living is thus clearly unbeneficial to some pockets of the population, especially the lower-skilled and lower-income people. Development of technology Over the years, technology has advanced in many ways that were thought impossible. The development of technology is rapid, persistent and ever-changing. With the introduction of technology to global markets, the demand for commodities has increased. Products and services are also increasing constantly. This has led to increase in usage around the world. Through the introduction of technology, technological gadgets are more easily available and affordable, allowing people to use technology to look into the investment and financial sector. With the help of computers, more and more people can be connected to the events happening in the financial sector. As per statistics, everyday more than $1.5 trillion is now swapped in the worlds currency markets and around one-fifth of products and services are generated per year are bought and sold. Technological advancement and productivity expansion are the other benefits of globalization because since 1970s growing international rivalry has trig gered the industries to improvise increasingly (mapsofindia, 2011). Increased inter-communication With globalisation, it is now easier for people all around the world to move from place to place. People have the ability to move from country to country in a short amount of time as compared to before when there was no globalisation. For the purpose of commerce and pleasure, more and more people are crossing national borders. Globally, on average nations in 1950 witnessed just one overseas visitor for every 100 citizens. By the mid-1980s it increased to six and ever since the number has doubled to 12. Commerce as a percentage of gross world product has increased in 1986 from 15% to nearly 27% in recent years. Worldwide telephone traffic has tripled since 1991. The number of mobile subscribers has elevated from almost zero to 1.8 billion indicating around 30% of the world population. Internet users will quickly touch 1 billion. With improved telecommunications, information and goods are available easily across countries. Costs are lowered and information is more reliable and accurate than ever. With such changes to the global market, workers are not just dependant on their own countrys economy anymore. Old jobs and skills are outsourced to meet the increasing demands of the global economy, thus many lower-skilled workers get lower income or get laid-off. Effects of Globalisation Influx of immigrants Globalization has made the world very close and small because of the ease of transport and lower cost of travel, and thus also increases the immigration in Singapore. Based on the study of Singapore Population Overview (Table 1), it can be seen that the number of immigrants and PRs in Singapore was 31.7% in 2007 whereas in 2008, the number has risen to 34.6%. This means that the number of immigrants and PRs is growing at a faster rate than the citizen population. The foreign workforce in Singapore is 30% (in 2010) not counting those who are newly converted citizens and PRs.( Diary of A Singaporean Mind, Monday, August 30, 2010) The government has offered scholarships, jobs and assistance for people in many other countries to settle in Singapore. Table 1. Singapore Population Overview (source: SingStat) Singapore Population Statistics Currently, there are 4.8 million people residing in Singapore, and about 478,000 are PRs. (On April 1, 2009, in Life in Singapore) Among them, the students, professionals entrepreneurs want to stay in Singapore after finishing their studies or own businesses , and establishing their careers. Table 2. Persons Granted PR (source: SingStat) Persons Granted PR post Singapore Immigration Table 3. Persons Granted Citizenship (source: SingStat)Persons Granted Citizenship post Singapore Immigration The tables show that each year, there are about 60,000 foreigners granted as PR. In contrast, only 15-17,000 citizenship status was approved yearly. Despise Singapores economic advantages; foreigners main motivators are citing tax incentives as well as health and education benefits which come from being a citizen or PR. Singapore is a very small island and has limited land and housing. Singaporeans have always welcomed immigrants in the past from Malaysia or Indonesia but nowadays the influx immigrants in the recent waves strains our infrastructure and leads to income inequality. Singapores economy now depends heavily on foreign labour which took up 58,300 new jobs, and over half of the 112,500 new jobs which are created in the year. Assuming one third or half of the locals are PRs, the proportion of new jobs which belong to foreigners is likely to be as high as two thirds or three quarters. (Tan Jee Say, Creating Jobs and Enterprisein a New Singapore Economy) These immigrants are taking jobs away from the locals and hence living some jobless. The Unemployment Rate (SA) in Singapore was 1.9% in Mar 2011. (Statistics Singapore)On top of that, they are driving down the income levels for the low-skilled jobs and hence even if locals were to work in it, they will be paid only a small amount. This would not be sufficient for the citizens especially since the standard of living in Singapore is high  ¼Ã‹â€ refer to the Higher Living Standard ¼Ã¢â‚¬ °and thus they might not be able to afford to pay for some needs. Ultimately, income gap will grow wider. In the past, the workers economic fate was only relevant to the national economic fate. However, globalization and improvements in communication, as well as influx immigrants changed the case. Now workers have to compete in a global market, and their wages are not so dependent on the individual economies success or failure of. The mind workers such as engineers, scientists, executives can compete successfully in the global market and receive high wages. However, the production and service works industrialized countries are not able to compete with those from third world countries. The workflow changes, thus poor countries get the low-value-added element of work which is formerly done in rich countries; however, higher-value work is maintained. (Economics focus: Cash machines. 2011-04-16.) This is a main effect on widening income gap. The population has increased to 5.5 million; a big part of it is made up of immigrants. Seventy-eight percent of Channel News Asia/Gallup polled felt that Singapore should limit the number of foreign workers when the population increases. (Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences ( 2009) Vol 1, No 3, 982-1002982)The management of the consequences of attracting more talented immigrants has become a challenge both in political and economic aspect. Globalization results in more acute income inequalities and meanwhile places a high premium on talent. Those people who stand at both ends of the skills spectrum are worried about their future.((Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences ( 2009) Vol 1, No 3, 982-1002982)) The cheaper labour from neighboring countries has forced the lower end to improve skills more efficiently. At the other end, Singapores industries has also storm skills deficit which has been pushed into higher value-added. Those Singaporean s who are better educated now have become being placed at a disadvantage in a more and more competitive job market. There is growing concern on the influence of fairly large immigration on the establishment of Singapores cultural and national identity, and on the states management of racial diversity as well. (Koh, 2003: 230-256). Effect of Globalization: Opening of New Economy and its effect on the unskilled, leading to widening income gap Globalization has become crucial for economic growth and prosperity in Singapore in recent decades, though the gains main spread unequally. Its magnitude and speed increase the free mobility of the products, services, as well as the factors of production across national borders. Globalization has made it possible for the transition form heavy industry or manufacturing-based economy to a new technology based one, thus leads to the opening of new economies. However, like most by-products of globalization, it has been a double-edged sword. The high growth, low inflation and high employment of this period led to overly optimistic predictions and many flawed business plans. (Newsweek article (January 2001) on the false claims of the new economy) Business in developed countries process outsourcing enables cheaper labour and services, however, meanwhile, displaces some of the service-sector jobs. One the one hand, accessing to the global market by attracting Direct Foreign Investment (FDI) and foreign investments has promoted Singapores economic development. On the other hand, the blue-collars jobs in the city-state were forced to run away to low-costs countries such as China and India. Thus it has a main effect on the widening income gap. Figure 1 QQà ¦Ã‹â€ Ã‚ ªÃƒ ¥Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ‚ ¾Ãƒ ¦Ã…“ ªÃƒ ¥Ã¢â‚¬ËœÃ‚ ½Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ Ã‚  Figure 2. Wage inequality between Skilled Professionals and Unskilled ones. Source: Ministry of Manpower Singapore (2007). Report on Wages in Singapore 2006 Figure 1 indicates about 52.0% of Singaporeans are skilled workers in 2010. Figure2 shows the ratio of the skilled occupations wages to the unskilled ones wages. Regarding the income inequality between occupations, the collectively defined skilled workers continue to earn more than unskilled workers such as the cleaners, labourers and related workers. And the income gap has widened further since 1996.Therefore, the wage growths relative stagnation among the unskilled workers would unquestionably have influence on the widening income gap between the two ends of the occupational spectrum as indicated in Figure 2. Due to globalization, with the internet and airplanes, the distance between countries is getting shorter. The international communication on technologies and science has been more interactive and immediate. Therefore, companies nowadays set different parts of their plants in different countries and locations, saving the delivery time but not sacrificing the quality of the products and. The outsourcing of old jobs makes the companies greater profit due to low exchange rates of the countries and lower costs. However, meanwhile, the new technologies will make the old skills obsolete and increase the rate of unemployment in Singapore. The new economy is not only the high technology and the Internet, but also the work is now being supported by technology and evolving with technology. The new economy consists of new organizational models as well, emphasizing teamwork which means the decision making is no longer dominated by a single boss. The old economy just focused on local, state or national markets, but the new economy focused towards global market. The new economy showed a change in how the nation tried to draw business and industry. In the old economy, the industry was attracted to the nation because of low priced labor, cheap land, low tax, convenient transportation and other physical infrastructures. In the new economy, outsourcing is becoming more and more popular. Such phenomenon is due to a period of transition to the new economies which is knowledge or idea-based from the old ones. The key of the new economy is the utilized technology and high quality of production, as well as new ideas and innovation which can be embedded in all aspects of the economy. In 1950, 60% of the jobs needed unskilled workers; however, today only about 15% of jobs require them. The need for professionals has been around 20%. (Dr. Jacquelyn P. Robinson, A L A B A M A C O O P E R A T I V E E X T E N S I O N S Y S T EM, Volume 1, Issue 4 September 22, 2000)The requirement of skilled jobs which needs education and training has grown. Real wages for high school graduated without technical training decreased 18% over the last 18 years and those without high school diploma dropped 40%.((Dr. Jacquelyn P. Robinson). Therefore, the well-off march towards the global market and make more profit while the poor and uneducated become obsolete and unemployment, leading to the widening income diversity. CONCLUSION In this paper, we have discussed more about globalization: its role and the effects it has on Singapore, more specifically, the widening income gap. As can be seen, globalization has affected the way things work and old skills and jobs are gradually being outsourced. Although we cannot do anything to prevent it, it is important than we are aware of the consequences and try to improve Singapores current situation. Hence, Singaporeans should jump at the chance to improve their skills, so as to have a better future in exchange. Indeed, the Singapore government faces a tough challenge in trying to achieve this trinity of social goals income equality, economic growth and fiscal discipline (Yeoh 2007/2008). Even though this is hard to put into practice, the Singapore government has to adopt specific actions and measures to address the spiraling income inequality. This will help to prevent social discontentment and continue the wealth and prosperity that Singapore has been achieving over the years. However, the Singapore government has the responsibility to pay close attention to the needs of the people, especially those falling through the cracks with the rising cost of living. It is important that the government continues to care for the needs of the people and ensure that effective measures are carried out to ease their burdens. Unhappiness among the people leading to widespread discontentment can cause policies to fail; hence, political leaders must be capable of directing these emotions towards productive uses that benefit the economy, rather than allowing these emotions to develop into civil strife. Besides the economic policies to reverse income disparity, most importantly, the government needs to demonstrate empathetic leadership and win the hearts of Singaporeans so that the future will continue with a better Singapore.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Frankenstein as a gothic novel Essay -- English Literature

Frankenstein as a gothic novel The gothic tradition highlights the grotesque, relies on mysterious and remote settings, and is intended to evoke fear. All of these are evident in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, especially in chapter five. The settings in the novel are striking and distinctively gothic. Appropriately, the creature first breathes on a "dreary night of November," in a remote laboratory at Ingolstadt. The eerie atmosphere is typical of the gothic tradition. Victor, unafraid of the dark, spends his time in "vaults and charnel-houses,† he boldly visits the cemetery at the dead of night. details such as the creaking doors, the soft blowing of the wind in the still of the night, and the quiet footsteps in the house all lead to a feeling of fear and suspense. On a certain level, Victor's interest in creating life is an extension of his desire to escape death. By assembling the body parts of the dead, Victor makes a "monster", a massive, grotesque being, with the mind of a new born baby; and like a tormented spirit, the creation haunts Victor’s mind. Analysis: Chapters 3–5 The first three chapters give the reader a sense of impending doom, and chapter four depicts Victor on the way to tragedy. The creation of the monster is a grotesque act, far removed from the triumph of scientific knowledge for which Victor had hoped. His nightmares reflect his horror at what he has done and also serve to foreshadow future events in the novel. The images of Elizabeth â€Å"livid with the hue of death† prepare the reader for Elizabeth’s eventual death and connect it, however indirectly, to the creation of the monster. Victor’s pursuit of scientific knowledge reveals a great deal about his perceptions of sc... ... comments such as â€Å"I fear, my friend, that I shall render myself tedious by dwelling on these preliminary circumstances† both remind the reader of the target audience (Walton) and help indicate the relative importance of each passage. Shelley employs other literary devices from time to time, including apostrophe, in which the speaker addresses an inanimate object, absent person, or abstract idea. Victor occasionally addresses some of the figures from his past as if they were with him on board Walton’s ship. â€Å"Excellent friend!† he exclaims, referring to Henry. â€Å"How sincerely did you love me, and endeavor to elevate my mind, until it was on a level with your own.† Apostrophe was a favorite of Mary Shelley’s husband, Percy Bysshe Shelley, who used it often in his poetry; its occurrence here might reflect some degree of Percy’s influence on Mary’s writing.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Significance of Repetition in Our Town Essay -- Our Town Essays

Significance of Repetition in Our Town  Ã‚      Wilder was born in Madison, Wisconsin in 1897 to Amos Parker Wilder and Isabella Wilder.   In 1906, Amos Wilder was appointed American Consul General, and his family moved with him to Hong Kong.   Thornton Wilder only lived in Hong Kong for 6 months, moved back to the United States with his mother, and then in 1911 rejoined his father in Shanghai for a year.   Wilder attended Oberlin College for two years, moved with his family to New Haven, Connecticut, and entered Yale University.   He wrote his first full-length play in 1920, which appeared in the Yale Literary Magazine.   After receiving his B.A. at Yale, he traveled and taught French.   In 1926, he received his M.A. in French Literature from Princeton.   Thornton Wilder effectively illustrates the importance of life’s repetition in Our Town through the cycle of life, George and Emily’s love, and the playing of â€Å"Blessed Be the Tie that Binds.†    Wilder’s show of the cycle of life in Our Town exemplifies the significance of life’s repetition.   In Act I, the beginning of life’s cycle is shown when Dr. Gibbs returns home from delivering twins.   In the act of   â€Å"Love and Marriage,† which follows three years later, the Stage Manager describes children growing up and learning to talk, and people who used to be athletic are finding that they cannot do what they used to do.   He goes on by saying that most young people found that they were ready to get married, and start their families.   So was true with George Gibbs and Emily Webb.   They moved on from being children and were now learning how to be adults.   In Act III, which is placed nine years afte... ...ral sing the song to show the gap between the dead and the living.   â€Å"Blessed Be the Tie that Binds† facilitates the understanding of the play and life.    Thornton Wilder effectively demonstrates the importance of life’s repetition in Our Town through the cycle of life, George and Emily’s love, and the playing of â€Å"Blessed Be the Tie that Binds.†Ã‚   The cycle of life is shown repeating from birth to life to death and back to birth again.   George and Emily’s love is repetitious and unending, even after the death of Emily, which demonstrates the importance of life.   As â€Å"Blessed Be the Tie that Binds† is recurrently heard throughout the play, it serves as a bridge through a void of time or place, which is important in understanding the play.   It is no wonder that Wilder achieved a Pulitzer Prize for his in-depth work of life.     

Dangers of Darkness in Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness :: essays research papers

Webster’s dictionary defines darkness as a space â€Å"devoid or partially devoid of light.† Throughout Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad uses darkness in many ways, as this book truly defines its title. This also develops Conrad’s theme, which is the presence of darkness in both ourselves, and in the world we live. Darkness symbolizes the unknown, the concealed, and the feared. Darkness can hide many hurtful, fearful, and savage things. Several times in the novel readers can see characters afraid of the darkness and the unknown behind it. One of these is when the men aboard the steamboat, which is heading into dense fog, hear a piercing scream. The men are especially frightened because the source of this scream is unknown because of the darkness. Darkness is also shown throughout the book as an abstract term referring to the absence of morals in a society. The â€Å"darkness† of the country conceals the brutal actions of the region. This is especially evident in Kurtz’s most barbaric act, the placement of human heads on poles that surround his house. Conrad tries to portray to readers that the fearful â€Å"darkness† can also be something that is not strictly literal, but instead something spiritual. Lastly, the tendency toward darkness in all humans is evident in this book. First the company of men is willing to go into the darkness of the jungle because of the potential of wealth. Secondly, this is portrayed when the men see the sunlight, and instead of heading towards it they decide to head back into the darkness. Conrad is showing readers that human’s natural tendency is to head towards the darkness instead of light. This is summed up beautifully at the end of the book when the narrator says the boat is headed â€Å"into the heart of an immense darkness.† This shows that from beginning to end humans have that natural tendency to head into the â€Å"darkness.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

How does Robert Louis Stevenson Create a sense of Mystery, Horror and Suspense Essay

In the novella â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† Robert Louise Stevenson uses many techniques to create a sense of mystery, horror and suspense. In this essay I will be analyzing some of these techniques in further depth. I will be explaining what effect these techniques will have on the reader. â€Å"The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† was published in 1886 and is probably the best known of Stevenson’s novels. It concerns the fine divide between good and evil. In the book the reader finds out more about how and why Dr Jekyll created a potion that separates the good side from the evil side, of the person. Unfortunately he lost control of the situation, resulting in a number of unfortunate events. Mr. Utterson is widely regarded as a good man, there is much evidence in â€Å"The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† to back this statement up. One piece of evidence to show this is when the reader is told â€Å"something eminently human beaconed from his eyes†. This is a short and meaningful insight into the persona of Mr. Utterson. . We are also told that he had a â€Å"approved tolerance for others†. This is more evidence to show that he could empathise and care about people. This also makes the audience think that he will be tested. He is also said to be â€Å"the last good influence in the lives of down going men†, he is known to be a compassionate man, he looks to help people rather than judge them. This also makes the reader think that being a client of Mr Utterson, Dr Jekyll may be possible in store to be coming into some trouble. We are told much about Dr Jekyll’s House in the novel. â€Å"Showed no windows†, what does it mean to the reader, why would this mysterious character have no windows, what is he hiding, or what is hiding in there. This raises questions to the audience about the man, why would a man in a respected profession such as a doctor want to be living a life like this in a house with no windows. It says that â€Å"the wall was discoloured† and the it â€Å"bore marks of prolonged and sordid negligence†. This leads the audience to wonder, what would cause the walls to be discoloured and why does man take so little pride in his abode. The writer Robert Louse Stevenson uses words like the word sordid to create an image of evil and wickedness. IT is said to be â€Å"blistered and disdained† and have â€Å"neither bell or knocker†. The later of the two statements bears more negative connotations than the former. The fact that the house has no bell or knocker signifies to the reader that Dr Jekyll does not wish to be disturbed thus adding to the atmosphere of secrecy. Why would a man such like Dr Jekyll wish not to bothered what is he hiding in this house. The Final Statement regarding the dwelling of Dr Jekyll is typical of gothic writings of that era, it has mysterious connotations that intrigue the reader in saying â€Å"some place at the end of the world†. It also conjures up images of evil when Enfield says â€Å"Black winter morning†. On page 11 the reader is recounted the story of how Mr. Hyde trampled over the child. This is most probably the best example of the Robert Lewis Stevenson using specific techniques to create an innate sense of horror. He uses a common technique of the era, using descriptive, detailed language to intensify the sense of horror. For instance he says â€Å"some place at the end of the world about three o’clock of a black winter morning†, he also goes on to say about how empty and lifeless the streets were. The reader is also made to feel fearful, wary and loathsome towards this beast whom is said to have felt no remorse for the heinous act he had just committed. The writer instills these feelings within us by saying thing like â€Å"the man trampled calmly over the child’s body† this not only makes the reader horrified that someone could do such a thing, is also exceedingly curious as to who this man could be and why is he so remorseless for what he has done. Mr. Enfield makes several accounts of Mr. Hyde’s persona. The way in which Mr. Enfield reacts to the sight of Mr. Hyde makes the reader believe he must be a truly terrible man to provoke such a reaction from a well respected man such as Mr. Enfield. Mr. Enfield Says that Hyde â€Å"gave me one look, so ugly that it brought the sweat on me like running†, The reader will immediately relate someone being hideously ugly to them being morally objectionable. He also says â€Å"I had taken a loathing to the man at first sight† the reader questions what could it be that causes him to beacon this loathsome aura. It is said by Enfield that it was not only him to feel this way towards Hyde â€Å"I saw that sawbones turn sick and white with the desire to kill him† the reader wonders what could possible cause a man you whom had previously been described as emotionless to feel this way to a man he does not even know. The final account of Hyde is short but is nonetheless important it is when Hyde is described as being â€Å"really like Satan†. This is a grave accusation to make, saying that a man is like Satan the epitome of all that is evil. It is not false though Hyde is all that is evil within Dr. Jekyll. Mr. Enfield says that the man he saw was â€Å"of the name Hyde†. This name has a eerie ring to it, it carries a certain mystique. When people hear the name Hyde they immediately think of secrecy and what is the secrecy for. Later in the novel Utterson makes reference to Hyde’s name saying â€Å"If he is Mr. Hyde then I shall be Mr. Seek†. This immediately makes the reader think of the childhood game hide and seek. If this mans name is Hyde then why must he be found, what will he do? One technique that Stevenson uses to great effect is withholding information about the character Mr. Hyde. Mr. Enfield says â€Å"no sir I had a delicacy, I feel very strongly about putting questions†. This is Enfield saying that he did not inquire too deeply about Hyde. This creates mystery and suspense. Hyde is a mysterious character who the reader knows very little about but is intrigued by. Suspense is created by the fear of what this man is going to do. Enfield and Utterson also agree not to talk about this man again. This makes the reader incredibly suspicious of why it is that these two men do not wish to speak about this incident. Mr. Utterson states on page fifteen that already knows of Mr. Hyde saying â€Å"The fact is, if I do not ask you the name of the other party, it is because I know it already†. This shows to the reader that Mr. Utterson knows more than he is letting on. This makes the audience suspicious as to why a good man like Utterson would feel the need to keep this information to himself. Chapter two Dr. Jekyll’s will is very bizarre it says that â€Å"in the case of Dr. Jekyll’s disappearance or unexplained absence for any period exceeding three calendar months, the said Edward Hyde should step into the said Henry Jekyll’s shoes without further delay†. This engages the readers interest as to what the connection is between Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. It’s irrationality is said to have â€Å"offended Mr. Utterson both as a lawyer and a lover of the sane†. It is strange because it does not say that he should be dead before he steps in. Mr. Utterson is left baffled by what has been written in Jekyll’s will and decides to go visit Dr. Lanyon. Lanyon tells Utterson that ten years ago â€Å"he began to go wrong in the mind†. This raises suspicions in the readers mind about Dr. Jekyll now that they see that one of his dearest friends now speaks of him in such a way. He sys that his â€Å"unscientific balderdash† was so delirious and immoral that is could have â€Å"estranged Damon and Pythias† who in Greek mythology are known for being inseparable friends. The reader must wonder what it is that Dr. Jekyll did to provoke such a claim from a close friend. Lanyon says to Utterson that he knows not of Hyde. This makes the audience suspicious of how it is possible for a man who claims to have been so close to Dr. Jekyll, but does not even know the man who he wishes to leave his entire estate to. We are told that Mr. Enfield’s â€Å"imagination also was engaged, or rather enslaved; as he lay and tossed in the gross darkness of the night†. Stevenson tells the reader that Utterson is imagining all of the terrible things that this Hyde character could have done. This automatically makes the reader imagine which builds up a sense of horror in the readers mind. We are told that Utterson did not know what Hyde looked like. Like Mr. Utterson the reader will imagine the worst of what Mr. Hyde looks like. He is described as a â€Å"human Juggernaut† the word Juggernaut instills images of an untamed beast that you must be cautious around. â€Å"It was the face of a man who was without bowels of mercy† This makes the reader tense about how terrible this man could be. â€Å"Spirit of enduring hatred† it could be because of the way Enfield reacted to this man that has caused Utterson to feel this way. When Utterson finally meets Hyde it is a very Dramatic tense scene full of typical language from gothic writings of that era e.g. â€Å"it was a fine dry night, frost in the air, the streets as clean as a ball room† this is typical extremely descriptive scene setting. From previous descriptions of Mr. Hyde the reader can only expect the worse for Mr. Utterson.